ماهو الطب الجديد ؟

  • محتويات الصفحة الرئيسة
    –  اسم الموقع
    –  الواجهة الرئيسة
    –  الصفحات في المستطيل العلوي
    –  الصفحات في الصور في الأسفل
    –  مستطيل الصورة الشخصية
    .
    *    حول اسم الموقع
    –  caminsa =   الطب   التكاملي البديل في المملكة العربية السعودية
    –  Cam = Complementary Alternative Medicine     in    Sa = Saudi Arabia
  • الواجهة الرئيسة
    – مركز بديل : مركز متخصص بالتغذية والعلاج البديل .
    –  مؤسسة تيجان : مؤسسة متخصصة بتسويق منتجات الصحة والعلاج الطبيعية
    –  مالك المركز والمؤسسة . : أ.د. أحمد بن عبد الرحمن الشوشان
  • *  حول الصفحات أعلى الصفحة
    تضم الصفحة الرئيسة صفحات فرعية ( في موضوعات عامة عدا الأرشيف الخاص ) كل صفحة يشير عنوانها الى محتواها ومنها :
  • مركز بديل ، الطب الجديد ، مواضيع ساخنة الخ .
    .
    *  حول صفحات الصور في الأسفل
    وهذه كل منها صفحة مستقلة عن العنوان المكتوب أسفل الصورة وهي مدونة خاصة تشمل أعمال ومسؤوليات تمت خلال السنوات الماضية
    .
    *  حول العبارة في مستطيل الصورة
    –  التفريق بين انواع الطب والمعالجة
    هناك ثلاث تصنيفات او تقسمات للطب :
    1. الطب التقليدي
    .كل ممارسة على يد طبيب (مرخص رسميا) ويعتمد على الأدوية والجراحة والتقنية الطبية .
    2. الطب البديل
    .كل ممارسة على يد متخصص (مرخص رسميا)  ويعتمد على مواد وطرق غير اختصاص ما سبق للطبيب .
    3. الطب الشعبي
    .كل ممارسة (بدون مؤهِل وترخيص رسمي) وليس للمارس حدود في الطريقة والمواد .
    من هذا يتبين أنه بغض النظر عن المواد والطرق المستخدمة فان التصنيف يعتمد على المعالج : فالطب البديل هو ما يمارسه مؤهل مرخص رسمياً ، بينما من يمارس نفس الطرق والمواد دون ترخيص رسمي فانه يصنف بالطب الشعبي او بالمعالج الشعبي . والطب الشعبي اذا كان مصدره ذو خبرة طويلة ومشهود له بالتزكية الاجتماعية فان له ايجابيات تستحق أن تدرس وتؤصل وتدمج في اطار البدائل العلمية .
    .
    لكل نوع من الطب ايجابيات وسلبيات ولكن :لا مجال لمقارنة التقدم والتطور والايجابيات التي يتمتع بها الطب التقليدي السائد، الا أن هناك زيادة في مستوى التحفظ على جوانب أساس في الطب التقليدي أهمها :
  • 1 . الانعكاسات السلبية للأدوية .
    2 . مباشرة اجراء الجراحات غير الضرورية .
    3 . طغيان الجانب المادي على الخدمات الطبية .
    4 . قصور الخدمات الطبية في علاج أكثر الأمراض اشكالا وهي الأمراض المزمنة والمؤدية للوفاة .

    هذه التحفظات أدت الى اتجاه الناس للبحث عن طرق علاجية قديمة وحديثة غير طبية ولكن :
    في الدول المتقدمة تم تطوير الطب الشعبي والقديم الى ما يعرف بالطب البديل ثم الطب الموحد . أما في الدول النامية والعربية حيث لم يتم احتواء وتدريس الطب البديل وتم اهمال الطب الشعبي واعتباره تخلف بات الوضع مختلط والتبس على الناس التفريق بين الطب البديل والطب الشعبي وهذا أدى الى تفشي ظاهرة ادعاء كثير من الممارسيين الشعبيين للطب البديل.
    ولتوضيح الأمر فان هناك فروق جوهرية بين الطب البديل والطب الشعبي :
    1. الطب البديل مرخص وتتم ممارسته في عيادات ومراكز .
    2 . الطب الشعبي غير مرخص  وتتم ممارسته في المنازل ومواقع خاصة .

    الوعي المتحضر يتطلب :
    1 . فهم الفرق بين أنواع الطب .
    2 . عدم الانسياق دون تفكير ، وموازنة للسلبيات والايجابيات .
    3 . الطب التقليدي هو الاختيار الأول اذا تم الاحتياط للتعكاسات المذكورة اعلاه .
    4 . اللجوء الى مركز او خبير مرخص بالطب البديل .
    5 . في حالة اللجوء للطب الشعبي ينبغي الاحتياط للخبرة والعمر وتزكية المجتمع واستشارة مؤهلين .

    أخـــيـــــــراً

    الشعوذة الطبية
    يمكن ان تكون في كل الأنواع الثلاثة السابقة ، وهي ممارسة اي نوع من الطب دون المام تام وتحمل للمسؤولية ولدوافع تتعارض مع مصلحة المراجع .

    وهنا يكون واضح أن :
    كل من يمارس اي نوع من الطب دون ترخيص رسمي هو طبيب شعبي .
    ، واي طبيب شعبي لا يمتلك خبرة طويلة مشهودة و لا يتحمل مسؤولية عمله هو مشعوذ .
    وكذلك الطبيب والمعالج البديل الذي يستهين بسلامة المراجع ويكون هدفه غير مصلحة المريض

*****  وللتفصيل يمكنك قراءة الموضوع التالي  *****

الطب القديم والحديث والطبيعي والدوائي

يسعى الناس للبقاء أصحاء ويجتهدون في علاج ما يتعرضون له من مشكلات بدنية ونفسية . ,منذ وجد الانسان على الأرض والناس يلجأون لمعالجين  يستخدمون – في الماضي البعيد- نواتج الطبيعة والوسائل اليدوية ويستعينون بالروجانيات وبالمجهول او مايعرف ب ماوراء الطبيعة ، ثم – منذ بداية العصر الحديث – يلجأ الناس الى معالجين وأطباء مؤهلين علميا يستخدمون وسائل مقننة منضبطة حيث حلت الدراسة محل الاجتهاد وحلت التقنية محل الفراسة .
بين القديم والحديث تظل الصحة لغز الاهي ويظل العلاج مطلب انساني ، وسوف تستمر الأفكار والطروحات حولهما وتتواصل الفلسفة والمحاولات بصور واشكال شتى . ومن الواضح الآن أن الطب القديم له دوره وله مخاطره كما أن الطب الحديث مع ايجابياته العظيمة له سلبيات جوهرية. لهذا انقسم الناس بين متمسك بالقديم وبين متوجه للحديث ولكل طرف مبرراته وحيثياته ومعتقده ورأيه .
ولأن الدول المتقدمة تقوم على فكر يبحث عن الحقيقة وينظر في احتياجات البشر ويأخذ اعتبار لتوجهاتهم ، لهذا لم يمنع تأسس وتطور الطب الحديث  أكاديمياً وتنظيمياً وتطبيقياً من اتاحة المجال للطب القديم ليعيد تأسيس وتطوير ذاته في تلك الدول ، ولهذا استقر الأمر اليوم على مدرستين مدرسة طب حديث معروف وسائد ومدرسة طب بديل تكاملي بدأ يشق طريقه ليكون تطبيق حضاري جديد علما انه لم يصل الى مستوى التنظيم والانتشار الذي حققه الطب الحديث حتى اليوم . ولهذا يحاول الخبراء اليوم ايجاد طريقة لالتقائهما من أجل صحة الانسان .
هذا الوضع لا ينطبق على الواقع العربي حيث الفكر الغالب هو التبعية والهيمنة بغض النظر عن الحقيقة واحتياجات الأفراد والشعوب ولهذا فالتوجه   واحد والمدرسة واحدة ترتكز على الطب الدوائي والتقني رغم محاولات التأصيل والبحث والاستجابة للاحتياج ولم يؤدي ذلك الى اي تطوير في الطب القديم والموروث ولا مواكبة مستوى الطب التكاملي البديل عالميا  .
وعموما تجدر الاشارة الى انه  عمليا ليس هناك طب قديم وآخر حديث ولا طب أصيل وبديل  ولا صحة طبيعية وأخرى صناعية وانما هي تقسيمات نظرية نتجت من الشد والجذب بين المدرستين أعلاه ، ولهذا يلزم التنويه بأن هذه المصطلحات  هي فقط ادوات نظرية نستخدمها لتسهيل وتوضيح موضوع الصحة ووسائل العلاج . فالطب هو ” علم وخبرة في الوقاية والعلاج بأسلم وأكفأ الطرق واكثرها ثبات بغض النظر عن متى بدأ استخدام هذه المواد او الطرق، والصحة هي التمتع بأفضل مستويات القدرة على التفاعل مع الحياة والآخرين بغض النظر عن كيف تتحقق .
الاختلاف اذا يكمن فقط في فلسفة الناس تجاه الصحة والطب فالعلم ليس حكراً على نوع ونجاح التطبيق أيضا ليس حكرا على وسيلة معينة . وفي النهاية فان هناك توجه عالمي الى ما يعرف بالطب الاندماجي او الموحد الذي يحاول ان يجعل كل فرد قادر على الاستفادة من الوقاية والعلاج الأكثر أمان وكفاءة وجدوى من خلال دمج المدرستين الحديث والقديم في طب المستقبل ، ولهذا لا معنى لرفض اي نوع من الطب والتطبيب او من وسائل الوقاية والعلاج بشرط ان تستوفي قواعد اساس اهمها ان تكون مباحة مأمونة قابلة للخضوع لمقاييس التجربة العلمية  .

أما الصحة محلياً
 في مقالاتي حول الصحة في المملكة أوضحت رؤية محددة ، فلايمكن أن تتطور الخدمات الصحية أو تتحسن مؤشرات الصحة مالم تتم مراجعة عليا لاستراتيجية الصحة الوطنية . فالصحة برمتها موكلة تشريعا وتنظيما لوزارة الصحة وهي عبر تاريخها تعمل بتوجه وفكر وتطبيق طبي علاجي بحت . ومعنى ذلك أن وزارة الصحة غفلت عن الجوانب الصحية والخدمات غير الطبية او ابقتها شكلية دون تفعيل . هذه الاستراتيجية الطبية العلاجية لم تستوعب الوقاية ولم تدرس أسباب الأمراض ولم تواكب التطور العالمي في الطب التكاملي والبديل ولذلك تحولت وزارة الصحة ومعها كل قطاعات الصحة الرسمية والأهلية الى قطاع خدمي استهلاكي مهمته تشغيل المراكز والمستشفيات وتنظيم تشريعاتها وتوفير وسائل العلاج الدوائية والتقنية . هذا كله في جوهره لم يساعد في تحسين الوعي الصحي بالمجتمع واحدث اتكالية مفرطة على العلاج واصاب القطاع الصحي بعجز اقتصادي خدمي أضر كفائة ونوعية الخدمات الصحية وتحولت الصحة ووزارة الصحة والخدمات الصحية الوطنية الى نموذج طبي بحت الغى اسس الصحة ومصطلحاتها وفروعها واختزلها في الخدمات الطبية العلاجية الدوائية والجراحية . وباهمال اسباب ومنابع واحصاءآت المرض والتماهي مع التجارة الدوائية والتقنية الطبية صار التنظيم الصحي ووزارة الصحة جهاز يلهث دون نتيجة لملاحقة الأمراض وسد ثغرات المشاكل الصحية التي تتجدد لغياب أسس العمل الوقائي والتوجيهي والتخصصات الصحية العلاجية البديلة المأمونة وغير المكلفة ، دون كفاءة اقتصادية او صحية موضوعية مقبولة. هذا كله لاعلاقة له بيجابيات الخدمات الطبية ودورها العظيم في العلاج وتخفيف المعاناة ولكنه نقد لنوعية التوجه واضرار التركيز على العلاج .

لمتابعة الموضوع  الطب الجديد

الطب الجديد
الطب المندمج أو الموحد  Integrative Medicine
أ. د. / أحمد بن عبدالرحمن الشوشان

مــقـــد مــــــة عامة

  كثيرون في الدول النامية لا يزالـون على اعتقـاد قديـم بأن  العـلاج الحضاري هـو فقط مراجعة المستشفى والطبيب والتقيد بوصفة الدواء و اجراء مايُطلب من فحص وجراحة، ويعتبرون ان غير ذلك هو جهل وتخلف . هـذا الاعتقـاد للأسف خـاطـىء ومضلل و لم يعد ينـاسب الوعي الصحي المطلوب ، كما ان استمرار التفكير بهذه الطريقة قـد يؤدي الى  سلبيات متعددة منها :  اولا انه يجعل الفرد تحت رحمة العلاج الدوائي الكيميائي حتى وان كان لا يلحظ له نتيجه رغم ان من البديهيات أن اي دواء   له آثار جانبية و يجب استخدام الأدوية  للضرورة المؤكدة . ثانيا ان فكرة انه لا علاج الا بالمستشفى وعلى يد طبيب وباستخدام الأدوية فكرة خاطئة لأنها حرمت الكثيرين من الاستفادة من معالجات وعلاجات علمية مهنية غير تلك التي تعودوا عليها وتقدمها مراكز متخصصة على ايدي معالجين درسوا .سنوات في كليات طبية حديثة مختلفة تسمى كليات الطب التكاملي او الموحد. الأمر الثالث ان الاتكالية على العلاج الدوائي والجراحي تعطل مبدأ التفكير الذاتي وتعطل متابعة الفلسفة الصحية والاطلاع على التوجهات الجديدة في العلاج بوسائل فكرية وفلسفية لم تكن معهودة.  المشكلة تكمن في ان الكثيرين في دولنا النامية لا يزال لديهم التباس بين ( الطب الشعبي المتأخر والعلاجات والوصفات العشوائية التي يكررها الناس قي مجالسهم ويتداولونها في وسائل التواصل الإجتماعي) وبين الطب التكاملي الذي هو علم  أكاديمي منظم  أفاد ملايين الناس حول العالم . هذا الالتباس والخلط راجع الى غياب الاهتمام الرسمي بتطوير الطب التكاملي محليا وغياب بر  امج الابتعاث لدراسة تخصصاته ولهذا تعود الناس على الطب التقليدي الذي يقدمه الأطباء العاديون في المستشفيات والعيادات وبقي اعتقادهم بأن الأدوية الصيدلانية هي المأمونة دون ان يدركوا ان غياب الطب التكاملي وعياداته في دولهم ومحيطهم هو الخطأ بينما يتطور وتنتشر عيادة الطب البديل او التكاملي في عواصم ومدن الدول الأكثر تقدم  وتطوير في مجال صحة الانسان وعلاج الأمراض .أخيرا انك بتجنب الوقوع في هذا  الخلط والالتباس تفيد ذاتك ومن حولك من فرصة لم تكن تتخيلها في علاج متيسر ومتاح  من مرض او مشكلة حتى وان كانت قديمة ومزمنة وحاولت كل اشكال العلاج والأدوية الطبية دون فائدة.

تعريف

هناك تحولات عالمية في الصحة والوقاية والعلاج  يلزم ادراكها  .
ومنها التحول الى مايسمى بالطب الاندماجي الموحد أو بالاختصار  CAM  وكذلك التحول الى ما يعرف عالميا بالطب التكاملي البديل أو بالاختصار  IM

TCM = Traditional or Conventional Medicine
الطب النقليدي او الطب السائد
وهو المتوفر حاليا في المستشفيات والعيادات والمراكز الطبية في دول العالم الثالث . وهو نظام فيه طبيب يشخص المرض ويصف الدواء الطبي او الجراحة اي انه تنظيم يعتمد على الأطباء فقط بينما يكون بقية الفريق مساندين او مساعدين . بدأ هذا النظام مع الثورة العلمية والصناعية العالمية وقدم ايجابيات عظيمة للبشرية خاصة بعد تطور التقنيات الطبية في التشخيص والعلاج الدوائي والجراحة . ولكن هذا النظام الطبي السائد واجه خلال العقود الأخيرة كثيرا من الصعوبات الجوهرية والنقد العلمي في الدول المتقدمة ولهذا بدأ التحول الى انظمة الطب التالية ( للتفصيل هــنــــا).

CAM = Complementary and Alternative Medicine
الطب التكاملي والبديل

وهوالعلم الطبي الأحدث والذي نشأ نتيجة للملاحظات السلبية على وسائل الطب الحديث والاسراف في تعاطي الأدوية واجراء الجراحة غير الضرورية وعجز الطب الحالي المعروف عن ايجاد علاج عملي للكثير من الأمراض المزمنة وتلك التي يعاني منها معدلات عالية من الناس . اذا فالطب التكاملي او ما يسمى بالتكميلي او البديل هو تخصص يدرس حول العالم في الجامعات المشهورة وغيرها ويتم فيه دراسة ست سنوات كاملة دراسة طبية معمقة في نوع من انواع الطب التكاملي ولكنه يختلف عن الطب المعروف في ان الدراسة والممارسة تركز على طرق طبيعية قديمة موثوقة او حديثة مقننة حسب التخصص ونوع المعالجة . .

IM= Integrative Medicine
الطب المدمج أو الموحد
الطب الجديد

الطب الموحد حسب ترجمتي الخاصة او مايعرف بالطب الاندماجي هو امتداد للطب السابق التكاملي وقد تم اختيار هذا الاسم والتوجه عالميا لتوحيد طب المستقبل بحيث يمكن الدمج بين الطب الحالي المعروف والطب التكاملي فيكون العلاج مزيج بين الأدوية والجراحة الضرورية وبين العلاج التكاملي الطبيعي ويشترك الأطباء العاديون والمعالجون الجدد في تطبيق المعالجة . ****

مرة أحرى  TCM,  CAM , IM


TCM  تعني الطب المعروف حاليا السائد في دول العالم الثالث المتوفر في المستشفيات والمراكز والصيدليات .

CAM  تعني استخدام علاجات وطرق علاج غير الأدوية وغير الجراحة تعتمد على انها مجربة ومنضبطة ومؤثرة سواء كانت قديمة او حديثة .

IM هو الصورة الجديدة لممارسة الطب او الطريقة التي يجب ان تتوفر في العيادات والمستشفيات وتعني ان تستطيع ان تجد معالجين واطباء يقدمون لك توجيهات و طرق علاج مختلفة من القديم والحديث الموثوق والمنضبط ، كما تعني ان لك حق الاطلاع على ملفك العلاجي واتخاذ قرارك بنفسك .
ويمكن تعريفه بانه اسلوب عمل في المستشفيات او مدخل حديث يجمع طرق ووسائل وأدوية الطب التقليدي الحديث والطب البديل التكاملي ,يقوم به أطباء استكملوا تأهيلهم بالبديل ومعالجين استكملوا تأهيليهم في الطب ويتم من خلال تشخيص شمولي يأخذ في الاعتبار الأبعاد الروحية والنفسية والبيئية ويستفيد من كل مدخل وقائي او علاجي منضبط تم تأكيد فعاليته ، ويتيح علاقة افضل بين المعالج والمريض ويبدأ بأقل الوسائل والعلاجات انهاك وضرر ،كما يتيح للطبيب التفاعل الفلسفي الحكيم .والاجتهاد العلمي المنضبط.

مقدمة أكاديمية

Integrative medicine has been defined as healing-oriented medicine that takes account of the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), including all aspects of lifestyle.􀀀It emphasizes the therapeutic relationship and makes use of all appropriate therapies, both conventional and alternative. Integrative medicine is about more than just combining conventional and alternative approaches to medicine.  It is really about shifting the delivery of health care back to being very patient-centric and using a full range of proven therapies to seek the patient’s optimal health and healing, even when a cure is not possible

 

مقدمة أكاديمية

 

مقال تفصيلي

الإنفتاح العالمي علي الطب الموحد
Integrative Medicine around the world

أ. د. / أحمد بن عبد الرحمن الشوشان

الناس في دول الشرق العربي -نظراً لتغيب التأصيل – يُتابعون التطور التقني ويواكبون التغير في وسائل التقنية ويستفيدون من مخرجاتها، ولكنهم – وحتى كثير من المختصين والمهنيين – غالباً لا يلحظون الحراك الفلسفي العلمي القائم في دول الأصل والمنشأ الغربية والأوروبية ولا يواكبون التغير في الأسس والمباديء العلمية التي تحكم التخصصات والخدمات. ذلك ان المنظومة اللغوية والمهنية والفكرية تعيق في الغالب التحديث المعرفي، فيتباطأ التجديد المهني ويدور التطوير في فلك القائم والسائد رغم تأخره عن واقع المؤسسات العلمية والخدمية في المجتمعات الديناميكية.
وفي موضوع الطب تسود مواقف نمطية سلبية ضد الطب البديل التكاملي Negative Stereotypes Drive Opposition to CAM، لا تستند الى معيار علمي، حالت دون دراسة تاريخه وجذوره الفلسفية ومبررات الحركة التصحيحية الحديثة في اعادة تنظيم نموذج الرعاية الطبية الحالي Biomedical Model، كما أعاقت هذه المواقف تدريس الطب التكاملي البديل CAM في الكليات الطبية العربية وهذا بالتالي ابقى على الطب البديل والشعبي والموروث في دائرة التخلف مما عطل مواكبة التغير الدولي وتطور منظومة الصحة الوطنية. والمقال يستعرض النماذج الطبية القديم والتقليدي والبديل وتدرجها الى نموذج الطب الموحد المتنامي حاليا.
الطب القديم
ارتبط بقاء الانسان في العصور القديمة بمدى قدرته على مواجهة عوامل وظروف قاسية واتخذ من غريزته وتجاربه وسائل متعددة للحفاظ على قدرته الجسدية. تباينت تلك الوسائل بناء على المعتقد والتقليد الا انها ظلت لعصور طويلة ترتكز على مقاومة عوامل ما وراء الطبيعة وطرد الأرواح والاستعانة بالقوى الغيبية. مع تطور التجربة والتدوين لجأ الانسان الى وسائل أخرى استعان فيها بمخزون الطبيعة من النبات والحيوان وعناصر الهواء والماء والنار. في العصور الأخيرة التي سبقت النهضة العلمية الحديثة برع المصريون القدماء والإغريق واليونان في استحداث بنية للمهنة الطبية شملت التوثيق الطبي والتأليف واستعمال الوصفات الطبية والجراحة والأدوات الطبية. كما توجه المسلمون في عهود متقدمة الى ترجمة المعارف اليونانية والإغريقية وبزغ خلالها نموذج الطب الاسلامي بمشافي ومكتبات ورواد وقدم مرجعا اضاء التجربة الحديثة بانجازات عملية وعلمية رائدة. توالت التجارب الأممية للشعوب وتبلورت نماذج ضمنية للطب الصيني والهندي وغيرها اخذت منها المجتمعات الشرقية والغربية في بداياتها. شاب مرحلة الطب القديم كثير من التباين والبدع والوسائل الغريبة وظل مجال واسع للمعتقدات والطقوس التي في غالبها لا تخضع لتقنين معياري مهني او نموذج محدد للتشخيص. كما ان ممارسة التطبيب في تلك المراحل متاحة وتحكمها الخبرة والتجربة دون أي صيغة لتقنين او ترخيص المزاولة مع عشوائية غالبة في الوصفة والتحصل على المستحضرات العشبية.
تضمن الطب القديم في بداياته مداخلات استندت الى دفع تأثير الأراوح وقوى ما وراء الطبيعة واعتمدت الطقوس والتعاويذ في الوقاية والعلاج. في مراحله المتوسطة تبلور مفهوم الحكمة والتطبيب وتبنى الحكماء نظريات الأخلاط واثر الأجواء وتوازن العناصر والإختلاجات العضوية وساد مفهوم التشخيص واعتمد العلاج على مزيج من المداخلات الأقدم ومداخلات أخرى مثل الحُجبة والتدخلات الغذائية كالصيام وغيرها. في مراحله التالية اعتمد التطبيب على تفسير النظريات الأقدم واستعان بمداخلات أخرى شملت الوصفات العشبية واستخدام مداخلات فصد الدم والحجامة والكي كما كان للابر الصينية حضور في الجزء الشرقي من العالم اضافة الى مداخلات ترتكز على التجلي وممارسة التركيز الذهني والتعاويذ والطقوس الدينية.
شهد الطب القديم منعطفات متعددة جديرة بالدراسة تضمنت مؤلفات وتطبيقات متميزة ظل بعضها اعجاز ولغز خالد . الطب القديم لم يخلف حصر موضوعي لنتائجه في تخفيف العلل والتخلص من الأمراض وانعدمت في تلك الحقبة مؤشرات المرضية والوفاة ومعدلات الأمراض والشفاء. ولعل ابرز السلبيات التي زامنت تلك المرحلة استدعاء مسببات للعلل لا تتفق مع ما قدمته النظريات والاكتشافات الأحدث. من معالم الطب القديم أنه: نبع وتبلور في مجتمعات الشرق واقتبسها الغرب والمجتعات الأوربية، وانه اعتمد المدخل الطبيعي Natural Approach الذي كان قاسم مشترك للمداخلات الطبية الكونية في مختلف المجتمعات وقتها، وارتكز على مبدأ الشمولية Holistic View بأن أولى الجوانب الانسانية الروحية والعقلية والبدنية عناية متوازنة واعتنى باستنفار الكوامن الداخلية والذاتية واعتمد على المتاح من الوسائل والوصفات الطبيعية.

الطب التقليدي الحديث
أبرز خصائص الطب في المرحلة الحديثة انه نتاج فعل علمي منظم ساد دول الغرب ورسم خريطته التنظيمية والأكاديمية والتطبيقية بأبجديات غربية. في تلك المرحلة ادى التقدم الغربي في علوم الفيزياء والكيمياء والنظريات والاكتشافات العلمية – والتي استمدت ايضا معارف ومرجعيات من الارث الطبي الاسلامي- الى احداث نقلة نوعية في كيان وخريطة الطب عموما. وطرأ منعطف جديد ومهم في التشخيص والعلاج باكتشاف الكائنات الحية الدقيقة وتحديدها المسبب الرئيس للمرض. هذا الحدث قلب مبادىء الفكر والعمل الطبي جذريا وخلق ارضية مهنية واجتماعية تتعارض مع الطب القديم وصار تعاطيه تجاوز مهني حضاري غير مقبول. شهدت هذه البدايات اقرار النموذج الحيوي Biomedical Model في تدريس ومزاولة الطب ومعايير التشخيص والقياس واجراءات العمل الطبي. استقر النموذج الحيوي واغلق الدائرة الطبية على مبادىء أبرزها ملزمة تشمل (1) objectivism وتنص على ان المعلومة الدقيقة يمكن تحقيقها فقط من خلال تقدير لاذاتي لمعلومات حسية . (2) determinism وتعني ان السببية يمكن توصيفها فقط من منظور ميكانيكي. (3) positivism اي ان المعرفة تتراكم فقط من استقصاء الأرقام من نتائج ايجابية لتجارب حسية . وهذه المبادىء فرضت خصائص محددة تشمل : المرض اثر لمسببات عضوية صرفة قابلة للقياس والمعاينة ، المداخلات الطبية هي فقط ما خضع لضوابط التجربة العلمية واعتبر الأدوية المقننة والجراحات الطبية هي فقط وسائل العلاج . عم النموذج الطبي الغربي دول العالم واستنسخته دول الشرق العربي وتم تطبيقة فيها بدون نظر او مراجعة لمدى توافقه مع بنائها العقائدي والثقافي ودون تزامن في معالجة ذلك وتحديث نموذج الطب بناء على المستجدات. قدم النموذج الحيوي نتائج موثقة عبر مؤشرات منظمة للمرض والوفاة الخ.
خلال السنوات الأخيرة بدأ- في الغرب أيضا – حِراك منعكس ينقد سلبيات النموذج الحيوي للطب الحديث، وارتفع صوت المحافظين وأنصار الطبيعة وكان في بدايته حراك غربي اجتماعي مشتت نتج عنه نقل غير مدروس لوسائل ومداخلات الطب الشرقي القديم التي شاع استخدامها في دول الغرب واوربا دون تقنين او تنظيم او نموذج محدد. كان من ابرز العوامل التي اسهمت في تنامي الردة عن الطب التقليدي الحديث ونموذجه الحيوي: اختزله العلة في مبدأ المادية والمحسوس، نفي اللامحسوس وعوامل ما وراء الطبيعة والمسببات غير القابلة للمعاينة والقياس، إسقاط اثر النفس والروح والمعتقد كعامل مؤثر في المرض، الهيمنة واقصاء المعارف الصحية والمجالات غير الطبية كعلم التغذية وعلم النفس وغيرها، استبعاد الحكم الذاتي للطبيب واعتماد بروتوكول موحد، نفي منطلقات الحكمة ومحاصرة الموروث التجريبي من المداخلات الأقدم، تقلص العلاقة بين المريض والطبيب والتركيز على المرض لا على الانسان وتفاقم التجزئة والاختصاصات والتشخيص العضوي المجزأ بدلا من التقصي الشمولي، ازدياد اتكالية الفرد وانحسار دوره وحريته في الاختيار وكذلك اللافاعلية في علاج الأمراض المزمنة والأكثر فتكا اضافة الى تفاقم التكلفة والاعتماد المفرط على التقنية .
لاحقا تحول الحراك الاجتماعي – في دول الغرب واوربا – المضاد للنموذج الحيوي للطب التقليدي الى عمل مؤسسي استفاد من تجربة الطب الحديث في التنظيم وشرع في بعث مبادىء وقواعد الطب الأقدم ومداخلاته ولكن بطرح وصياغة مختلفة. ولأن العديد من الشعوب الآسيوية ظلت محتفظة بطابعها الشعوبي الطبي في تنوع المعالجين وتعدد المداخل بكما انها طورت هذا الطابع مؤسسياً وبحثياً وأكاديمياً – على خلاف البيئة والشعوب الاسلامية والعربية التي لم تثق بـ وتخلت طواعية عن ارثها وموروثها الطبي- لهذا بدأت تتنامي في الغرب كيانات مؤسسية من الاتحادات والجمعيات صنفت المداخلات الآسيوية الشرقية تحت مسمى الطب البديل. تنامى الطب البديل الى ان افتتحت اول كلية أمريكية لتدريس تخصصاته عندها جرى تغيير المسمى الى الطب البديل التكميلي اشارة الى تكملته الوظيفية لمهام الطب التقليدي القائم من خلال دمج مداخلات معينة محدودة ضمن الممارسة الطبية. ومن المهم الاشارة الى ان الاطار اللغوي ( الانجليزية ) الذي تم فيه هذا الحراك حال دون وصول مفرداته ومضمونه الى متناول المجتمعات في دول الشرق العربي، وبهذا ظل النموذج الحيوي والطب التقليدي في تلك المجتمعات الخيار الحضاري الوحيد واعاق جهل وتكاسل المؤسسات الصحية فيها المحاولات المحدودة لنقل الحراك الغربي الى ارضية وواقع الطب المحلي واستمر الجهل بمفهوم الطب الطبيعي والبديل والمكمل في تلك المجتمعات وظلت فيها مسميات مجردة بلا تاريخ او مضمون، كما ظلت تلك المجتمعات ومؤسساتها الصحية والأكاديمية تستند في تسطيح المنهج الجديد الى مبررات متقادمة اسقطتها البراهين التجريبية في دول المنشأ.
الطب المدمج او الموحد
خلال العقدين الماضيين تفاقم التوجه الغربي للبدائل الطبية في الوقاية والعلاج وأحدث تغيرا واضحا في الفكر الصحي لدى الأطباء والمرضى على حد سواء وأصبحت ممارسة الطب البديل واقع مقبول. وعلى الرغم من صرامة موقف انصار الطب التقليدي والنموذج الحيوي الذي استند الى وقائع فعلية اهمها: تشتت وعشوائية المداخلات البديلة وضعفها التجريبي غير المقنن وافتقارها الى الانضباط مع قواعد الحقاق العلمية القياسية. إلا انه في النهاية تبلور وبقوة مصطلح جديد حل مكان الطب البديل التكميلي واوجد ارضية لمدرسة غربية طبية جديدة اطلق عليها الطب المدمج او المتكامل تحديدا لمهمته في التكامل جنب الى جنب مع الطب الحديث في جملة النظام الصحي والطبي المعاصر والذي ترجمته شخصياً بـ “الطب الموحد” Integrative Medicine. تبنى الكيان الجديد صيغة مبدئية لنموذج مستقبلي Integrativ Model لا يزال رهن التطوير. من اسسه ومبادئه : إعتبار العوامل الروحية والنفسية، ودمج العلوم الصحية والمجالات الطبية البديلة في التدريس والمزاولة والترخيص ، التركيز على الانسان لا المرض وتحفيز العلاقة بين المراجع والطبيب، وتحفيز دور الفرد وتقريره في صحته وعلاجه والنزع الى المداخلات الأقل انتهاك والاستفادة من الأسس العلمية للطب الحديث ومن الفن الطبي الذي يكسوا النظرية والتطبيقات البديلة. وفي الوقت الحاضر تبنت مؤسسات الصحة الدولية المتقدمة الطب الموحد حيث يتم نشر بحوثه في المجالات الطبية المعتبرة، كما اسست له جمعيات رسمية أفضت الى انتشار تدريسه في كليات الطب في اعرق الجامعات العالمية مثل ييل ، ستانفورد، هارفارد، هوبكنز وغيرها في الولايات المتحدة ومنحت فيه الدجات العلمية الأعلى في مجالات الطب الموحد المختلفة وتعددت مراكز ومستشفيات الطب الجديد في تلك الجامعات وخارجها.
ظلت ولا تزال التحفظات الواقعية والجدل الايجابي في دول الغرب وأوربا قائمة على مضامين ومداخلات الطب الجديد وتباينها والاجتهاد المتاح في مزاولتها، وعلى امكانية صياغة معايير تقنن تدريسها وتطبيقها وإخضاع نتائجها لمقاييس البحث العلمي التجربي المتفق عليها عالميا. كما واصل المؤيدون مساع واعية لمعالجة النقص واستحداث مراكز الدراسة وإطلاق البحوث التجريبة التي تستهدف قولبة ممارسات الطب الجديد وتقنين ضوابطه ونتائجه في اطار علمي موثق. الملاحظ ان مثل هذا الجدل والاعتراض القائم في المدرسة الغربية على الطب الجديد ونموذجه الشمولي يقوم على جدل منطقي يستند على ابعاد تجريبية وخلفية علمية متمكنة، بينما الاعتراض في دول الشرق العربي اما من منشأ خارج الاطار العلمي والصحي او من مؤسساته الصحية التي ظلت تستند الى معلومات مكررة ومواقف لا تدعمها خلفية تجريبية وتطبيقية وتحتاج الى فرصة للإطلاع والمتابعة والتمكن.
الحقائق التجريبية المقننة
اضافة الى ضعف مداخلات الطب البديل والتكاملي الأول في غياب وحدتها التطبيقية القابلة للتدريس والممارسة فان العائق الرئيس في دول الغرب وأوربا وراء تأخر قبولها واندماجها بالطب الحديث هو ضرورة اخضاعها مسبقاً للتجربة العلمية المقننة Evidence-based المعتبرة عالمياً . وتعني أن تخضع المداخلات ووسائل ومنتجات العلاج لنمط معياري محدد من التجربة بضوابط علمية معروفة . هذه حقيقة و واقع يعتري نظم العلاج الطبيعية والبديلة والمتكاملة، إلاّ انه يلزم التنبه الا تفاصيلها الخلفية والتي اثبت التحول العالمي الأكاديمي والمؤسسي انها حقيقة وواقع لا تعيق الاندماج وقابلة للحل. من التفاصيل ان عدد من تلك المداخلات والوسائل اجتاز بالفعل التجربة العلمية المطلوبة ونشرت النتائج في مجالات علمية معتبرة. أيضا فان الدمج وإقرار الطب البديل والتكاملي تم اعتبارها ضرورة للوصول الى التنظيم والضبط العلمي المطلوب خاصة وان غياب التوثيق والتجربة للفاعلية لا تنفي علميا تلك الفاعلية وان غياب الدراسات والبحوث على تلك المداخلات أثرت عليه عوامل معروفة. ابرز تلك العوامل ان قوانين الابتكار والاكتشاف الحالية لا تكفل حق البراءة فيها مقارنة بالوسائل الطبية والعقاقير الدوائية. هذه الاشكالية حالت دون تمويل ابحاث ودراسات مُكلفة لا تنتهي بحقوق براءة للجهات والشركات الممولة.
الخاتمة
لا مجال لتعطيل تدفق توجه عالمي اسهمت فيه اعرق مؤسسات الصحة وصروح التعليم الطبي في العالم المتقدم . وهي فرصة متأخرة لا تزال قائمة لوزارات الصحة العربية وكليات الطب فيها، أن تشرع في توطين هذه التجربة العالمية المتنامية لتحقق للشعوب والمجتمعات العربية أداء طبياً معتبراً يجمع بين العلم والأصالة ويسهم في دراسة ومعالجة الأوضاع الصحية القائمة وتحسن مؤشرات الصحة الوطنية ويستعيد ما امكن من دور وريادة  عربية سالفة في الترجمة والتأليف والتأصيل ويعيد الثقة لارث العرب والمسلمين في الطب الحلي والشعبي من خلال منظومة علمية بحثية مقننة.

بروشور 

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في المملكة

فيما يخص تحديث التنظيم الطبي في المملكة ومواكبة التحول العالمي لتنظيم البدائل وتطبيق الطب الموحد فانه حتى نهاية العام 1435 هـ  1414 م  يلاحظ على وضع الخدمات الصحية في المملكة  التالي :

  1. انفصال تام عن الفكر الصحي في الدول المتقدمة فيما يخص مواكبة الفلسفة الصحية والطبية ودراسة وتطبيق الطب الموحد او البدائل العلاجية .

  2. استقرار كامل على النظام الطبي القديم المعتمد على الطبيب والمستشفى والصيدلية والجراحة الطبية .

  3. لا يوجد سوى عدد محدود جدا من الدراسات والبحوث العلمية.

  4. ندرة في ألاطباء المختصين بالطب الموحد في الجامعات والمستشفيات.

  5. لا يبدوا أي توجه وطني جاد لتطوير اختصاص الطب الموحد في المرافقق الطبية.

  6. غياب كامل تقريبا لتدريس الطب الموحد في المملكة .

  7. غياب شبه كامل للدراسات والبحوث  عدا بعض المحاولات التالية


مقالات ومراجع 

Does integrated medicine have a place in the Kingdom
BY K.S. RAMKUMAR & MOHANNAD SHARAWI
Published — Monday 20 May 2002

JEDDAH, 20 May — Does integrated medicine have a place in Saudi Arabia’s health care system? Dr. Ahmed Al-Jarallah, consultant, pediatric neurologist at King Saud University, Riyadh, dealt with the question here last week. “Several methods practiced in oriental medicine have been attempted and even used in treatment of common conditions,” Al-Jarallah said at the three-day international integrated medicine symposium and exhibition organized by King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC). In the beginning of the 20th century, he said, the people in the Kingdom depended entirely on oriental medicine. However, with rapid progress in health services, the dependence became more on Western medicine, which resulted in eradication of bacterial diseases and improved survival for patients with chronic conditions. “But since then it did not eradicate these conditions; patients used oriental medicine in addition to Western medicine to treat chronic diseases. Should we not attempt to answer the question whether integrated medicine has a place in the Kingdom?” he asked. In fact, Dr. Essam Al-Sabban, executive director of the research center and chief of the international collaboration program at KFSH&RC, observed that integrated medicine was a comprehensive form of medical practice, which provided complementary and alternative therapies alongside conventional medicine. “It’s practiced by physicians who are able to prevent, diagnose and treat different illnesses. People who prefer integrated medicine to conventional medicine claim that it’s safe and addresses the mental, emotional and spiritual needs of the patient. In a growing market of such therapeutic modalities it’s not enough to address the associated risks of this practice but it’s time to work together to set research priorities to endorse certain complementary and alternative approaches as safe and effective therapeutic modalities,” he said. “Two questions that need to be addressed are what is the appropriate research methodology applicable to integrated medicine practice and how its application can be regulated in the health care sector,” said Dr. Al-Sabban who is also consultant pediatric nephrology at the hospital. Saudi folk medicine covers a very broad spectrum of non-conventional therapies, ranging from herbal medicine, cupping, cautery setting broken or dislocated bones to various forms of self-care. Many people in the Kingdom believe strongly in such medications research into the safety and efficacy of such forms of therapy continues. King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology has sponsored a project “Merits and demerits of Saudi folk medicine’ which was mostly carried out by College of pharmacy, King Saud University, said Dr. Manosur Al-Said, professor and dean, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh. About traditional herbal medicine in Saudi Arabia, Dr. Mohammed Al-Tufail, director of toxicology, bioanalysis and GMO Laboratories, KFSH&RC, Riyadh, said beneficial effects of many Saudi plants were well established and many time-honored herbal remedies used effectively to treat minor self-limiting conditions. “It’s known that some herbs have both beneficial and harmful effects on humans and their long-term effects need investigation. This is very difficult due to variations in the composition of herbal remedies. Also, these remedies are taken in a variable dosage and frequency,” said Al-Tufail who has an extensive experience in the analysis and toxicology of herbal medicine and other products used by traditional healers. Dr. Faiz M. El Gali, director, alternative medicine center, at King Fahd General Hospital, Jeddah, discussed the role of acupuncture, a form of traditional Chinese medicine that has developed over thousands of years, in pain management based on King Fahd Hospital’s experience in Jeddah. In addition to medication, physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise, acupuncture as an alternative method offers other unique and effective safe method for relief of pain. Musculoskeletal pains are a common problem in many hospitals all over the world, although there is a great variability in its treatment responses. Acupuncture is well known worldwide and its contribution to analgesia and anesthesia is well documented and recognized by World Health Organization, according to him. In a presentation on management of musculoskeletal pains, he said: “We’ve dealt with 131 definite chronic pain syndrome in the last five months, with different ailments including acute and chronic head and neck pain, back pain, and acute strains, spasms or stiffness. We’ve successfully dealt with them both in the acute and chronic phase and also followed this through the rehabilitation phase,” he added. Dr. Dahong Zhuo, professor and director, WHO Collaborating Center for Rehabilitation, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science, China, said oriental medicine such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an important part in daily medical rehabilitation in his country. “Usually TCM methods are used in combination with Western technology. The value of TCM in medical rehabilitation lies in its holistic approach, effectiveness for many conditions, and popularity and accessibility as an appropriate technology. Among others, Chi Kung (Chinese style meditation), Tai Chi exercise, acupuncture/moxibustion, Chinese style manipulation and massage and Chinese herbal drugs are the most commonly used methods in medical rehabilitation bringing positive physical and psychological effects on the body and the mind. New herbal drugs for a faster and better recovery of functions after stroke are being tried with good results,” he said. According to Dr. Michael O. Smith, director, Lincoln Hospital Substance Abuse Division, Lincoln Recovery Center, Bronx, New York, more than 1,000 drug and alcohol treatment programs in the United States and 40 other countries have added an acupuncture component to their protocol over the years. This development is based on the 20-year experience of Lincoln Hospital that provides 100 acupuncture treatments per day as part of its comprehensive program. Acupuncture provides a physiological, and psychosocial message to a wide range of patients. Dr. Detlef Schikora, assistant professor, University of Paderborn, Germany, referred to a study that compares the effects of traditional metal-needle acupuncture with the new, noninvasive laser needle acupuncture. He presented several case examples of noninvasive laser needle acupuncture. According to Dr. Sulthan Bahabri, chief executive officer, KFSH&RC, Jeddah, many people seek alternative therapy when options for conventional therapy are exhausted. It is generally recognized that effectiveness of conventional therapy is limited for some illnesses. There is also a general fear about the side effects and complications of modern medicine. “However, there has been a two-decade-long movement toward more natural methods to treat a host of diseases. Furthermore, patients may feel a loss of control that leads them to use alternative therapy as a way to exercise some control over their care,” he said. Dr. Akbar Kimawi, medical homeopathy, oriental medicine and acupuncture consultant, King Fahd Hospital, Jeddah, described homeopathy, a medical discipline discovered by S. Hahnemann in 1790, was a non-evasive form of therapy, non-toxic remedy and using high-diluted single remedy. “Homeopathy entails a holistic approach with the concept that a whole cannot be divided into sum of its parts, taking into consideration the mind, emotions, reaction to weather changes in addition to patient symptoms. Dr. Sayed Rafatullah of King Saud University, emphasized that homeopathic treatment was non-invasive and gently, thus utilized by infants, children, men and women and elderly people alike. “It’s believed that sickness is related to the whole person and not to one particular part or organ of the body, thus homeopathy treats the patients not the disease,” he said. According to Abdul Hayy Hodijk, associate director, the writing program, department of English and comparative literature, American University in Cairo, the use of homeopathy has increased by leaps and bounds as the trend is more for integrated health care the world over. Also highlighted were transformational breath by Dr. Nora A. Al-Suhail of Transformational Breath Foundation, Eastern Province, and alternative therapies for refractory angina by Dr. Rohit R. Arora, professor and director division of cardiovascular diseases, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Arora said one of the options available was enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) — a noninvasive treatment. “It provides initial benefit and long-term results for patients suffering with the symptoms of angina pectoris who may not be candidates for the more traditional invasive procedures. It utilizes the same hemodynamic principle of counter pulsation utilized in the intra-aortic balloon pump. Increased diastolic augmentation increases coronary blood flow and perfuses the myocardial muscle. It has been demonstrated in clinical studies, published in peer review journals that EECP therapy reduces angina, decreases the need for nitroglycerine and increases cardiac output,” he said. Another effective and more natural method of medication is the herbal supplements introduced by Dr. Luke Cua, president and researcher of American Herbal Laboratories in California. Dr. Cua is the inventor of the new Vita, a full line of 33 natural herbs. “The products are easy to use and very effective for my patients. They have great results in three to 14 days,” he said, adding that the utilizing of these products had helped him maintain a heavy patient load. Vita products, according to him, include many treatments for most of the body organs like stomach, kidney, thyroid, liver, immune system, lung, heart, respiratory system and blood vessels. Moreover, a very effective treatment of hair loss and alopecia is also on its list.


9 Essential Medicines and Health Products Information PortalA World Health Organization resource   Saudi Arabia Background information Traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia is based on herbal remedies and spiritual healing. There is hardly a city or village in the country where traditional medicines are not used or sold. They are also commonly used in home remedies for certain ailments. In 1940, allopathic medicine began being used in large cities. Since then, the health authorities have taken all possible measures to develop highly sophisticated allopathic hospitals. The population of Saudi Arabia today enjoys very good health facilities. There was official resistance to complementary/alternative medicine until the 1990s when more Saudi Arabians demanded access to complementary/alternative medicine, and some professionals who had been trained abroad began to practise. The most popular therapies are acupuncture; herbal, nutritional, and health food products; and homeopathy. Regulatory situation A scientific research project on the merits and demerits of Saudi Arabian traditional medicines was undertaken as a precursor to drafting a regulatory framework and statutory provisions for the practice of Saudi Arabian traditional medicine and the sale and manufacture of the medicines used in it. An act governing the practice of pharmacy and trade in medicines and medical products was issued by Royal Decree M/18 dated 18/3/1398 H (equivalent to 26 February 1978). Articles 44 and 50 of this act prohibit the handling of locally produced or imported products prior to their registration with the Ministry of Health. Paragraph 13A of the special provisions on registration regulations for pharmaceutical companies and their products, which was amended through Ministerial Resolution 1214/20 dated 17/6/1409 H (equivalent to 25 January 1989) (168), requires the registration of medicines and all products having medical claims, including herbal preparations containing active ingredients that possess medicinal effects. The License Committee established under the Ministry of Health is responsible for approving or disapproving, mainly on the basis of safety and efficacy, the marketing and use of herbal preparations and herbal products, health food products, and natural health products, including items for cosmetic use. The Ministry of Health has approved guidelines restricting licences to practice acupuncture to those persons who have at least 200 hours of training, are anaesthetists, rheumatologists, or orthopaedists, and who comply with hygienic standards. Licensing legislation also regulates chiropractic educational standards and practice (81). Education and training No formal education exists in traditional or complementary/alternative medicine in Saudi Arabia; interested allopathic physicians go abroad to receive such training. Insurance coverage Traditional medicine is not covered by the health insurance system; however, some traditional medicine practitioners, especially spiritualists, practise free of charge.


Transcript of Herbal Medicine in Saudi Arabia

Herbal Medicine in Saudi Arabia Presented by: Rana AlQatari Why i chose this topic? Claims: Saudi Arabia Citizen’s lack awareness of herbal medicine, and they concentrate on the use of chemical medicine. The Quraan and Sunnah have given importance to herbal medicine; why don’t we? Integrative medicine could be the key to opening a new door to medicine in Saudi Arabia. Integrative medicine treats you, not the disease! References Thank you. AlFaraj, G. (2013, August). Physician. (R. AlQatari, Interviewer) Dhahran, EP, Saudi Arabia. Aloe. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 2013, from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-607-ALOE.aspx?activeIngredientId=607&activeIngredientName=ALOE Alternative Herbal Medicine In The Modern World. (2012). Retrieved 10 2013, from Alternative Medicine Facts: http://alternativemedicinesfacts.com/herbal-medicine/alternative-herbal-medicine-in-the-modern-world.html Bradly, D. (2011, September 5). Retrieved 10 2013, from Chemistry Veiws: http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/1312677/Herbal_Remediation_or_Complication.html Firenzuoli. (2007, September). Institutes of Health. Retrieved 10 2013, from NCBI: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2206236/ Saudi Food and Drug Authority. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 2013, from SFDA: http://www.sfda.gov.sa/en/drug/about/sector_departments/liicenses/Pages/Licensing-Directorate.aspx The Bravewell Collaboration. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 2013, from Integrative Medicine: http://www.bravewell.org/integrative_medicine/declaration_for_a_new_medicine/ Tian, S. (n.d.). Medicinal Herbs. Retrieved 10 2013, from Health Guidance: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/12415/1/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Herbal-Medicine.html Tilburt, J. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 2013, from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/8/07-042820/en/ Ting, K. (n.d.). About Integrative Medicine. (B. Bolwell, Producer) Retrieved 11 2013, from Cleveland Clinic: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/departments/integrativemedicine/about.aspx Research Question: Herbal medicine is provided in most pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, why do consumers typically choose chemical medicine over herbal medicine?


Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Patients with Cancer in Saudi Arabia

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences , and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, National Guard Health Affairs Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 1.69). 08/2012; DOI: 10.1089/acm.2011.0266 Source: PubMed
Abdul-Rahman Jazieh
National Guard Health Affairs
Saudi Arabia: 60 Percent of Cancer Patients Using Alternative Medicine
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: WHICH WAY FORWARD?
Despite technological advances in Conventional Medicine, globally there is sufficient evidence to suggest an increasing interest in alternative medicine. This is not only by public but also by physicians.1 For example, in 1990, Americans carried 425 million visits to alternative practitioners, 40 million more times than they visited their family physicians. A total of $13.7 billion was spent on this care and it is increasing overtime.2,3 Variable answers may be elicited for questions such as why is this occurring? Is it of value to physicians? How does it differ from conventional medicine?  Interestingly enough, the definition of alternative medicine is not yet generally agreed upon by majority of the people practicing it, i.e. “complementary medicine”, “holistic, “unconventional”,“frontier,” “traditional”,“folk”. Compared with conventional medicine, alternative medicine tends to concentrate on augmenting health through changes in life style adopting partnership relation with the patient and a comprehensive (holistic) approach.5 In other words, looking at the whole patient in the context of the entire family and social environment.  Nowadays, there are more than one hundred centers all over the world that have been recognized by World Health Organization as accredited alternative medicine providers.  This is in addition of innumerable number of colleges, clinics, hospitals and organizations teaching, practicing and coordinating activities of this type of medicine. There is substantial evidence in the literature to support that it is naïve to think that the effects of the alternative medicine are no more than a placebo-effect.5-13 Many patients seek out alternative medicine after they have explored the utility of conventional medicine where they found it to be ineffective or resulted in serious side effects and most of those patients are suffering of chronic illnesses.  Others use it in combination with conventional modalities, as a way of complementing each other.  While some of the patients refer to alternative medicine providers because they believe that their physicians are incapable or willing to listen to them, to understand them or to meet their needs.  Physician’s attitudes towards alternative medicine practice may be another reason compelling patients to do so.14 Therefore, physicians should better show a degree of openness towards their patients’ concerns and interest including alternative medicine. This was shown to improve doctor- patient relationship.15 For this purpose, physicians may need to acquaint themselves with at least the commonly used non-conventional modalities by their patients. Generally, references and special courses to physicians towards the practice of alternative medicine are made commonly available.4 Currently, most of physicians are not in a position to answer many of the questions raised by their patients towards alternative medicine.  Some physicians become defensive, angry and dismissive when the patient considers the use of an alternative medicine modality.  As a result, more than 70% of patients were found to use such therapies without telling their doctors that they are doing so.2 In Saudi Arabia, the interest in studying how prevalent is the practice of alternative medicine has already started.  For example, Dr. Al-Faris’s article in this issue describes the pattern of alternative medicine use in a given Saudi population. That article included a concise review of the literature that was published so far regarding some modalities of alternative medicine practiced in Saudi Arabia, their prevalence and some complications associated with their use. More research work is still needed for open yet critical evaluation of the different modalities used in Saudi Arabia.  It should not be forgotten in this regard that healing by the Holy Quran and by the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), sayings are inseparable parts of Muslims faith.  In USA, the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) was established on 1992, the National Institute of Health (NIH) for the purpose of investigating the efficacy of alternative therapies with a budget of $ 7.4 million in 1996.5 As a result of this, alternative medicine practiced at USA has already been classified into five categories. In Saudi Arabiaat the level of the Ministry of Health, steps have been initiated towards studying this type of medicine. However, it would be of interest to know how much the Ministry of Health inSaudi Arabiaallocated of its resources to the study of an area of medicine that is practiced by no less than one-fifth of the Saudi population. Although already started, in Saudi Arabia, physicians need to develop a reliable network of communication with alternative medicine providers. Alternative medicine modalities practiced in Saudi Arabiashould be studied, classified so that areas of potency, weaknesses, and dangers are identified and modalities with proven efficacy may be integrated in conventional medical practice. Up till that time when this objective has already been achieved, substantial increasing portion of patients are expected to use alternative medicine modalities. Issues such as banning or at least discouraging the practice of all or some of the modalities of alternative medicine and some other related questions such as, Can we do that?  How can we regulate such practice? Who should be permitted (licensed) to practice,   etc. will remain to be answered. Consequently, complications due to some of these practices are expected to continue.

Dr. Kasim M. Al-Dawood, FFCM (KFU)


Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Patients with Cancer in Saudi Arabia

To cite this article: Abdul Rahman Jazieh, Reem Al Sudairy, Omalkhair Abulkhair, Ahmed Alaskar, Faisal Al Safi, Nagham Sheblaq, Susan Young, Maher Issa, and Hani Tamim. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. November 2012, 18(11): 1045-1049. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0266. Published in Volume: 18 Issue 11: November 15, 2012 Online Ahead of Print: August 20, 2012

Author information

Abdul Rahman Jazieh, MD, MPH, Reem Al Sudairy, MD, Omalkhair Abulkhair, MD, Ahmed Alaskar, MD,Faisal Al Safi, MD, Nagham Sheblaq, BSPharm, Susan Young, CHIM, CTR, Maher Issa, MsC, and Hani Tamim, PhD King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, National Guard Health Affairs Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Address correspondence to: Abdul Rahman Jazieh, MD, MPH Department of Oncology Mail Code 1777 King Abdulaziz Medical City

  1. O. Box 22490

Riyadh 11426 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia E-mail: jazieha@ngha.med.sa

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among patients with cancer. However, the issue is not well-studied among the Saudi patient population. Our study aimed at determining the patterns of CAM use among patients with cancer in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using interview-administered questionnaire was conducted in patients with cancer in the Oncology Department of King Abdulaziz Medical City for National Guards, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were asked about CAM use including dietary supplement (DS) and non-DS remedies. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predicting factors for CAM use. Results: A total of 453 adult patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 53.5 years (14.7–94.6), and the ratio of females to males was 271/182 (59.8%/40.2%). Of those, 410 patients (90.5%) used some type of CAM remedy. Non-DS remedies were used by 399 patients (88%) and were mainly of a religious nature including reciting the Quran (74.8%), prayer (16%), supplication (13%), and others (3.7%). However, 386 patients (85.2%) used DS including: Zamzam water (59.8%), honey (54.3%), black seed (35.1%), water with the Quran recited over it (29.8%), and other remedies. The majority of patients (90%) used CAM as a cancer treatment and the rest used it for various reasons, such as symptom control or supportive treatment. Only 18% of the patients discussed CAM use with their physicians, compared to 68% discussing it with religious clergypeople (Sheikhs).The univariate analysis revealed that only female gender is a predictor of CAM use, which remained significant in a multivariate analysis, in addition to current employment. Conclusions: The use of complementary therapies among Saudi patients with cancer is highly prevalent, with a predominance of interventions of religious background, indicating the strong influence of religion on peoples’ lives, especially when people are faced with life-threatening illnesses.

This paper was cited by:

Stepping from traditional to integrative medicine: perspectives of Israeli-Arab patients on complementary medicine’s role in cancer care E. Ben-Arye, E. Massalha, G. Bar-Sela, M. Silbermann, A. Agbarya, B. Saad, E. Lev, E. Schiff Annals of Oncology. Jan 2014 CrossRef Antidiabetic and Anticancer Potential of Native Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia Samiah Naji Alqahtani, Sarah Omar Alkholy, Maria Pontes Ferreira . Jan 2014: 119-132 CrossRef Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Cancer Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Paradox in Healthcare Abdullah M. AlBedah The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Nov 2013, Vol. 19, No. 11: 918-919 First Page | Full Text PDF or HTML | Reprints | Permissions 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 HOW BEING AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPIST IS LIKE LIVING IN SAUDI ARABIA Posted on February 6, 2014 by Thebearthinstitute in Legal & Ethical Consultations, Naturopathic Healing, Naturopathic Healing Course NaturalpillsI lived in Saudi Arabia for a brief period while my husband worked for the Saudi-American (Aramco) oil company. Because things like men and women dancing together and Christian holidays were illegal Expats of some cultures had to use code words like “group exercise” or “seasonal celebration” and “jolly visitor”.   During that same period of time I took a cultural tour to Iran where, as tourists, we were informed that wearing a headscarf was the law. So we did. Only to be told by more than one resident, “You don’t have to wear it so tightly, just casually drape it on your head, that will fulfill your legal obligation”. This is a small example of how Iranians (Historically known as Persians) have been very wise and adept at living their peaceful cultural life within the ever-changing boundaries of different government entities.   At the time I was traveling and observing these cultural and political “dances” I felt they were very unique and unusual circumstances. I admired the creativity of the Persians and the political compromise of language between Expats and the government in Saudi Arabia. What has surprised me since then, though, was how often I have encountered these two situations again – in the world of alternative therapies.   I’ve been an alternative therapist for twenty-five years and have been amazed at the constant changes and battles that happen in the area of natural healing. At the core of the profession, however, nothing changes. Just as they did in Saudi Arabia and have done in Persia historically, traditional healers have simply become adept at weathering the changes and remembering who they are and why they do what they do.   To become adept and still maintain a professional, ethical and legal practice alternative therapists have needed to be aware of some of the issues that dominate the market. By staying focused on why they have entered the field of alternative therapies they stay focused on their goals and who they are. If they lose site of those goals in the distraction of rumors and misinformation then they are not able to spend time doing what they want to do – help others, and have a career as an alternative therapist.   There are the three main reasons students enroll at The Avicenna Institute to pursue their studies in alternative therapies The second two reasons listed below are also the two main reasons people in general pursue a career in natural and alternative therapies of any kind (naturopathy or other).   I Want to Be a Naturopath   Some people pursue a degree in alternative therapies because they want to be a naturopath. First, however, they have to know what a naturopath is and decide which kind of naturopath they want to be. This is the area that causes the most confusion for people. This confusion has come about largely because there has been a recent movement that has divided the field of naturopathy into two parts – the traditional naturopaths and the medical naturopaths.   “Traditional (or Authentic) Naturopaths” become adept at various skills within the realm of natural healing and alternative therapies and are trained to view each person as a holistic being. They are also trained to be able to help balance and improve the well being of individuals based on a holistic point of view. They usually have a great number of skills in their “toolbox” such as reflexology, homeopathy, herbology, iridology, aromatherapy, nutritional therapy and more. This is what the word, naturopathy has meant for thousands of years.   However, a very recent movement (only around 30-years-old) has sought to merge the fields of physician and naturopath. These medical naturopaths are required to take the same classes as a physician would take. The only difference is that they will supplement their education with some classes in alternative therapies and that they will usually apprentice with a naturopath, rather than an MD. The naturopaths they apprentice with will be medical naturopaths, many of whom run a practice, which is very similar to that of a medical doctor.   What has become confusing, over the past 30 years, is that in the process of trying to distinguish between “medical naturopath” and “traditional naturopath” the lobbyists for the “medical naturopath” group felt the best way to make things clear would be to state that the term “naturopath” could only be used by a medical naturopath. This has left people confused and has been the main fuel for the rumor that “traditional naturopaths are not real naturopaths”.   Traditional naturopaths in many regions, some of whom have practiced legally for years, have found themselves in a unique situation. How do they continue to practice legally? And how is it fair for a different branch of naturopathy to take their name away from them? What name do they use now? It IS still legal for them to use the term Ph.D. after their name. But what else do they call themselves now?   This is not yet an issue for everyone. Most states and regions do not yet have laws that restrict the use of the term “naturopath”. However, if a person’s state or region does have such a law they will want to consider their goals (based on the two below) in choosing a path and a new name.   Jennifer Potruff, a Doctor of Natural Health (who also holds the titles of MH, DI Hom, DNH, OMD, VND, and DO), talks about her decision making process, “I looked into a MD program and thought about doing that and then going the integrative medicine route, only to find out that insurance companies don’t cover it…and then they have the legalities that the medical doctors have when it comes to alternative medicine.  So I decided against it.”   I Want to Help People   The wisest and most professional solution has been to simply be familiar with and adapt to the ever-changing laws. Why? Because, as a professional, a health care practitioner is required to do this. Nobody is exempt from these laws. Rumors abound that if you are a medical naturopath or doctor you can easily “practice legally”. In fact, some medical and medical naturopathic schools make it sound like you are given a “free ticket” for helping people after you graduate and will not be able to help anyone legally unless you graduate from their particular institution or with one specific degree.   However, this could not be farther from the truth. Did you know that the laws governing medical naturopaths and doctors are some of the most restrictive healing laws in the world? A health care professional would be very unwise not to be familiar with the laws of his own profession. The medical naturopath has a legal forest to navigate. Even a doctor has restrictions in the area of natural medicine.   Thus, anyone wanting to help others and join the profession of alternative therapies – medical naturopath, traditional naturopath, medical doctor, or any other health care practitioner, needs to be familiar with the law and know how they can still help people within the current laws of their chosen profession. If you are a doctor, there are laws about what you can say about herbs and other alternative therapies, there are even laws about how you can suggest these modalities to your patients. If you don’t do it the right way you can get sued for malpractice. That is right, a doctor prescribing herbs can get sued for malpractice. The same laws apply to medical naturopaths. Traditional naturopaths also have restrictions, but these differ from those of a doctor or medical naturopath. In many ways they are more lenient. In some regions it simply involves the use of the term “naturopath” and other terms like “heal” or “prescribe” rather than any specific restrictions on practice.   However, in none of these cases does it change how a person dedicated to helping others can help. If a person is thinking of becoming a medical naturopath, traditional naturopath or doctor and they are doing it to help others, they must remember to keep their focus on that goal. One should learn the legalities that govern them and work within them to help their clients. Following the law when helping ones clients is the most responsible way to be a doctor, medical naturopath, traditional naturopath or health care professional.   As a side note – if a person is pursing studies as a natural healer to help themselves or their family there are very few laws that govern this.   I Want a Successful Business or Career   A business is about marketing, honesty, quality and professional behavior – not about a name.  A person can choose to be a medical naturopath, traditional naturopath, doctor, herbalist, massage therapist, homeopath or many other things and in each case they have an equal chance of being successful. Many doctors, medical naturopaths and even traditional naturopaths think that once they received their degree or title they would be “instantly successful” or that they would immediately find a job and start earning a large salary. This is why so many medical students are willing to take out loans in the tens of thousands of dollars to get them through medical school. Unfortunately this “instant success” is not a guarantee for doctors, medical naturopaths, or traditional naturopaths.   Running a business requires an entirely different set of skills. If a person’s goal in pursuing alternative therapies is to start a business this person needs to focus on their business skills – and not their title – for this aspect of the business. The business owner will need to either hire someone or cultivate their own skills in the areas of public relations, accounting, marketing and medical law.   The good news is there are usually groups that can help you with these things. The Avicenna Institute of Natural Therapies offers help in the area of starting a business – it is called “Legal and Ethical Consultations”.  They also offer free support in that area through their active student lounge. Students can visit the student lounge any time and chat with other students and professionals in the field to exchange information and ideas about how to make their business more successful. The American Naturopath’s Association, which they are members of, offers help and news about the laws of being a naturopath or other kind of natural therapist, and there are many other resources out there as well. The SBA (small business administration) is also a great basic resource for the basics of starting a business. When choosing a name for themselves, business owners will want to consider carefully the marketing quality of the name and the audience they are trying to reach.   I could write a book on this topic but I will give two short examples since a book will not fit into a blog post or newsletter. Example 1: If a person lives in a region where there are a lot of medical naturopaths they may not want to use the term naturopath (even if they legally can) as a title because they may want to distinguish themselves in a different way. Example 2: If a business owner knows a lot of people who are interested in herbs but know nothing about homeopathy they may want to open their practice as an herbalist. They can still use homeopathy and teach people about it, but the name “homeopath” would not be the best business choice in that situation.   From this short conversation I hope one can see that the best name choice for a title or business is one based on business factors and not other factors. Every student of The Avicenna Institute earns a number of certifications on their path to becoming a naturopath. They can choose to use any of those titles in their professional career or we can help them create a unique branding for their business.   What experiences of you own can you add to this article? We want to hear from you!   Don’t miss the Early Enrollment Discounts at The Avicenna Institute Naturopathic Series and The Avicenna Institute Unani Tibb Series now through February 15th only! Tuition costs are up to 50% off!

التالي …. يوتيوب أجنبي


أهم المداخلات البديلة 

Descriptions of Healing Modalities 

Nutritional Counseling: A practitioner who uses diet and supplementation therapeutically as the primary or adjunctive treatment for illness, as well as for maintaining good health. Nutritionists employ a variety of approaches, including food combining, macrobiotics, and orthomolecular theory.
Herbal Therapy: The use of herbs and their chemical properties to alleviate specific conditions or to support the function of various body systems. Herbal formulas have three basic functions: elimination and detoxification, health management and maintenance, and health building.

Homeopathy: A system of medicine which stimulates healing through the administration of substances prescribed according to three basic principles: (1) like cures like, (2) the more a remedy is diluted, the greater the potency; and (3) illness is specific to the individual. Homeopathy is based on the belief that symptoms are signs of the body’s effort to get rid of disease; treatment is based on the whole person, rather than on the symptoms.

Osteopathic Medicine: A form of medicine that focuses on the relationship between the structure of the body and its function, and recognizes that both structure and function are subject to a range of disorders. In treatment of the individual, osteopaths use various forms of physical manipulation, to facilitate the body’s self-healing mechanism, as well as more conventional medical therapies. Osteopaths are fully licensed to diagnose, treat, and prescribe.

Acupuncture: Use of fine-gauged needles inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate or disperse the flow of energy. This ancient Oriental technique is used to alleviate pain or increase immunity by balancing energy flow. Massage, herbal medicine, and nutritional counseling are often used in conjunction with acupuncture.

Chiropractic Medicine: A health-care system emphasizing structural alignment of the spine. Adjustments involve the manipulation of the spine and joints to re-establish and maintain normal nervous system functioning. Some chiropractors employ additional therapies, such as massage, nutrition, and specialized kinesiology.

Stress Management: Any therapy or educational practice with the objective of decreasing stress and enhancing one’s response to the elements of life that cannot be changed. This broad category may include bodywork, energy work, visualization and counseling.

Hydrotherapy: The use of water, ice, steam, and hot and cold temperatures to maintain and restore health. Treatments include full body immersion, steam baths, saunas, and the application of hot and/or cold compresses.

Indigenous Medicine: consists of the healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience.[1]

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أبرز الهيآت والمنظمات والمراكز للطب البديل والموحد

الجامعات

Yale University School of Medicine
Integrative Medicine at Yale
cam.yale.edu 

Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital
www.imc-griffin.org

Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford Center for Integrative Medicine
http://stanfordhospital.org/clinicsmedServices/clinics/complementaryM

Harvard Medical School
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine 
at Brigham & Women’s Hospital
www.osher.hms.harvard.edu

University of California, Irvine
Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine
www.sscim.uci.edu

University of California, Los Angeles
Collaborative Centers for Integrative Medicine
http://ccim.med.ucla.edu

University of California, San Diego
Center for Integrative Medicine
http://cim.ucsd.edu

University of California, San Francisco
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine 
at UCSF
www.osher.ucsf.edu

University of Southern California
USC Institute for Integrative Health
http://integrativehealth.usc.edu/

Colorado 
University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine
The Center for Integrative Medicine at University of Colorado Hospital
www.uch.edu/integrativemed

Connecticut
University of Connecticut Health Center
Programs in Complementary and Integrative Medicine
http://picim.uchc.edu

District of Columbia
George Washington University
GW Center for Integrative Medicine
www.integrativemedicinedc.com

University of Pittsburg
Center for Integrative Medicine
http://integrativemedicine.upmc.com

Georgetown University
 School of Medicine
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program
http://cam.georgetown.edu

University of Arizona
Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine
www.integrativemedicine.arizona.edu

Illinois
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Northwestern Integrative Medicine
http://www.nmpg.com/integrative-medicine

Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center
KU Integrative Medicine
http://integrativemed.kumc.edu/

Maryland
Johns Hopkins University
 School of Medicine
Program in Integrative Medicine
www.hopkinsmedicine.org/cam

University of Maryland
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.compmed.umm.edu

Massachusetts
Boston University School of Medicine
Program for Integrative Medicine & Health Care Disparities
http://www.bu.edu/integrativemed/
Michigan
University of Michigan
Integrative Medicine
www.med.umich.edu/umim

Mayo Clinic
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
www.mayoclinic.org/general-internal-medicine-rst/cimc.html 
North Carolina
Duke University
Duke Integrative Medicine
www.dukeintegrativemedicine.org

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Program on Integrative Medicine
pim.med.unc.edu

Ohio
Cleveland Clinic
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.ccf.org/integrative

The Ohio State University
Wexner Medical Center
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.medicalcenter.osu.edu/go/integrative

============================================================

قائمة عامة 

United States

Universityof Arizona
Program in Integrative Medicine
Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine

Stanford University
Stanford Center for Integrative Medicine
Universityof California, Irvine
Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine
Universityof California, Los Angeles
Collaborative Centers for Integrative Medicine
Universityof California, San Diego
Center for Integrative Medicine

Universityof California, San Francisco
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine
Universityof Colorado at Denver School of Medicine
The Center for Integrative Medicine
University of Connecticut Health Center
Programs in Complementary and Integrative Medicine
Yale University
Integrative Medicine @ Yale
cam.yale.edu
Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital
University of Hawaii-Manoa
John A. Burns School of Medicine
Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Northwestern Integrative Medicine
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
NorthShore University HealthSystem
University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine
Universityof Kansas
Program in Integrative Medicine
JohnsHopkins University
School of Medicine
Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

University of Maryland
Center for Integrative Medicine
Boston University School of Medicine
Program in Integrative Cross Cultural Care
Harvard Medical School
Osher Institute
Tufts University School of Medicine
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Center for Mindfulness
University of Michigan
Integrative Medicine
Allina Health
Mayo Clinic
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
Universityof Minnesota
Center for Spirituality and Healing
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
Institute for Complementary & Alternative Medicine
University of New Mexico
Health Science Center
AlbertEinstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Continuum Center for Health and Healing
ColumbiaUniversity
Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine
DukeUniversity
Duke Integrative Medicine
Universityof North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Program on Integrative Medicine
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Center for Integrative Medicine
Cleveland Clinic
Center for Integrative Medicine
The Ohio State University
Center for Integrative Medicine
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Cincinnati Center for Integrative Health and Wellness
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
Oregon Health and Science University
Women’s Primary Care and Integrative Medicine,
Center for Women’s Health
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson Myrna Brind Center of Integrative Medicine
Universityof Pennsylvania
CAM at Penn
University of Pittsburgh
Center for Integrative Medicine
Vanderbilt University
Vanderbilt Center for Integrative Health
MD Anderson Cancer Care
Division of Cancer Medicine
Universityof Texas MedicalBranch
UTMB Integrative Health Care
Universityof Vermont College of Medicine
Program in Integrative Medicine
Universityof Washington
UW Integrative Health Program

GeorgeWashington University
Center for Integrative Medicine
GeorgetownUniversity
School of Medicine
Aurora Health Care
University of Wisconsin-Madison
UW Integrative Medicine Program
Canada

University of Alberta
Complementary and Alternative Research and Education (CARE)

University of Calgary
Canadian Institute of Natural & Integrative Medicine
McMaster University
Family Practice Centre of Integrative Health and Healing
12

Associations

Integrative Medicine Association
www.aima.net.au
An association of Medical practitioners incorporating complementary medicine

Australian Kinesiology Association
www.kinesiology.org.au
An association for the registering of Kinesiology practitioners

Australian Traditional Medicine Society
www.atms.com.au
Complementary Medicine Practitioners Association

Colleges

College of Complementary Medicine
www.complementary.com.au

Complementary Medicine Information Websites

The Journal of Complementary Medicine
www.jnlcompmed.com.au
Australian Pharmaceutical Publishing Company Ltd
Level 5, 8 Thomas St.
Chatswood NSW, 2067
Ph: 02 81179500

NCCAM (National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
www.nccam.nih.gov OR http://nccam.nih.gov/health/

Centre for Complementary Medicine Research – University of Western Sydney
www.uws.edu.au/complemed

Evidenced based CM information
www.rccm.org.uk/static/Links_CAM_databases.aspx

Current reviews and protocols for Complementary Medicine
http://www.compmed.umm.edu/cochrane/

Cancer and Complementary Medicine
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/therapy/CAM 

Comprehensive herbal medicine site

http://www.herbmed.org

Herb and drug interaction lists
http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/umherb01.htm

http://www.umm.edu/medref/

General research database
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

Drug Information
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.htm

Complementary and Alternative Medicine
– Evidence updates by Therapy
www.library.nhs.uk/cam/Page.aspx?pagename=THERAPY
Library information service
www.cam.nhs.uk

Clinical Nutrition updates
www.nutritionupdates.org

HealthWorld
www.healthy.net
Good reviews of many CMs

Alternative Health News
www.altmedicine.com

Healthy Eating Club newsletters
www.healthyeatingclub.org/info/newsletters/index.htm
www.healthyeatingclub.org/

Linus Pauling Institiute, Oregon State University
www.lpi.oregonstate.edu
Free site. Useful information on micronutrients, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and diets.

Herbs and micronutrients
www.longwoodherbal.org/
Free site. Useful herbal monographs and information on CM. eg: herbs and micronutrients.

Herbs – The Natural Pharmacist, Edward Hospital and Health Services
hwww.edward.org/family_history/ehic/mainnav.asp
Free site. Useful herbal monographs and information on CM. eg: herbs and micronutrients.

IDIS-herbal links:
www.uiowa.edu/~idis/herbalinks/
Provides website ratings and links to other natural medicine databases.

Clinical Trials
www.clinicaltrials.gov
This website lists about 7,000 clinical studies sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), other federal agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry, including those involving CAM.

NCCAM – Herbs at a Glance

www.nccam.nih.gov/health/herbsataglance.htm

Cancer information on CAM:

National Cancer Institute’s Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) list of clinical trials on CAM.
www.cancer.gov/cam/clinicaltrials_list.html

MD Anderson Cancer Centre The University of Texas:
www.mdanderson.org/departments/cimer/

16

Members

United States

Arizona 
University of Arizona
Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine
www.integrativemedicine.arizona.edu

California
Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine
http://www.scripps.org/services/integrative-medicine

Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford Center for Integrative Medicine
http://stanfordhospital.org/clinicsmedServices/clinics/complementaryMedicine/

University of California, Irvine
Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine
www.sscim.uci.edu

University of California, Los Angeles
Collaborative Centers for Integrative Medicine
http://ccim.med.ucla.edu

University of California, San Diego
Center for Integrative Medicine
http://cim.ucsd.edu

University of California, San Francisco
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine 
at UCSF
www.osher.ucsf.edu

University of Southern California
USC Institute for Integrative Health
http://integrativehealth.usc.edu/

Colorado 
University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine
The Center for Integrative Medicine at University of Colorado Hospital
www.uch.edu/integrativemed

Connecticut
University of Connecticut Health Center
Programs in Complementary and Integrative Medicine
http://picim.uchc.edu

Yale University School of Medicine
Integrative Medicine at Yale
cam.yale.edu 

Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital
www.imc-griffin.org

District of Columbia
George Washington University
GW Center for Integrative Medicine
www.integrativemedicinedc.com

Georgetown University
 School of Medicine
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program
http://cam.georgetown.edu

Florida
University of Miami
Miller School of Medicine
http://cim.med.miami.edu

Hawaii
University of Hawaii at Mānoa
John A. Burns School of Medicine
Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
http://www.jabsom.hawaii.edu/JABSOM/departments/intro.php?departmentid=15

Illinois
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Northwestern Integrative Medicine
http://www.nmpg.com/integrative-medicine

University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
NorthShore University HealthSystem
www.northshore.org/integrative

Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center
KU Integrative Medicine
http://integrativemed.kumc.edu/

Maryland
Johns Hopkins University
 School of Medicine
Program in Integrative Medicine
www.hopkinsmedicine.org/cam

University of Maryland
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.compmed.umm.edu

Massachusetts
Boston University School of Medicine
Program for Integrative Medicine & Health Care Disparities
http://www.bu.edu/integrativemed/
Harvard Medical School
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine 
at Brigham & Women’s Hospital
www.osher.hms.harvard.edu

Tufts University School of Medicine
http://www.tufts.edu/med/

University of Massachusetts Medical School
Center for Mindfulness
www.umassmed.edu/cfm/index.aspx

Michigan
University of Michigan
Integrative Medicine
www.med.umich.edu/umim

Minnesota
Allina Health
*
www.allinahealth.org

Abbott Northwestern Hospital
The Penny George Institute of Health and Healing
http://www.allinahealth.org/ahs/anw.nsf/page/ihh_home

Mayo Clinic
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
www.mayoclinic.org/general-internal-medicine-rst/cimc.html 
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
http://mayoresearch.mayo.edu/mayo/research/cimp/

University of Minnesota
Center for Spirituality & Healing
www.csh.umn.edu

New Jersey
Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences
Institute for Complementary & Alternative Medicine
www.shrp.rutgers.edu/dept/primary_care/ICAM

New Mexico
University of New Mexico
School of Medicine, Integrative Medicine
http://medicine.unm.edu/integrative/

New York
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
https://www.einstein.yu.edu/features/stories/802/integrative-medicine-at-einstein/
The Center for Health and Healing
www.healthandhealingny.org

Columbia University Medical Center
http://www.cumc.columbia.edu
Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine
http://nyp.org/services/complementary.html

Mount Sinai Medical Center
http://icahn.mssm.edu

North Carolina
Duke University
Duke Integrative Medicine
www.dukeintegrativemedicine.org

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Program on Integrative Medicine
pim.med.unc.edu

Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Center for Integrative Medicine
http://www1.wfubmc.edu/cim/

Ohio
Cleveland Clinic
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.ccf.org/integrative

The Ohio State University
Wexner Medical Center
Center for Integrative Medicine
www.medicalcenter.osu.edu/go/integrative

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Cincinnati
Center for Integrative Health and Wellness
www.med.uc.edu/integrativehealth
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/service/i/integrative-care/default/

Oregon 
Oregon Health and Science University
http://www.ohsu.edu/xd/index.cfm

OHSU Center for Women’s Health
http://www.ohsu.edu/xd/health/services/women/services/complementary-medicine.cfm

Pennsylvania
Temple University School of Medicine
http://www.temple.edu/medicine/education/mdprograms/medical_education/curriculum_overview.htm
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson Myrna Brind Center of Integrative Medicine
http://www.jeffersonhospital.org/departments-and-services/myrna-brind-center-of-integrative-medicine/

University of Pennsylvania
Perelman School of Medicine
http://www.med.upenn.edu
Abramson Cancer Center
http://www.penncancer.org/patients/patient-care-fundamentals/integrative-medicines-and-wellness/

University of Pittsburg
Center for Integrative Medicine
http://integrativemedicine.upmc.com

Tennessee
Vanderbilt University
Vanderbilt Center for Integrative Health
http://www.vanderbilthealth.com/integrativehealth/

Texas
MD Anderson Cancer Center
University of Texas
www.mdanderson.org/integrativemed

Texas Tech University
Health Sciences Center
http://www.ttuhsc.edu
Division of Integrative Medicine
http://www.ttuhsc.edu/som/fammed/divisions/integrativemed.aspx

University of Texas Medical Branch
UTMB Integrative Health Care
http://cim.utmb.edu

Vermont
University of Vermont College of Medicine
http://www.uvm.edu/medicine/pih/

Washington
University of Washington
UW Integrative Health Program
http://www.uwmedicine.org

Wisconsin
Aurora Health Care*
http://www.aurorahealthcare.org/services/integrative-medicine

www.aurora.org/FPResidency

University of Wisconsin-Madison
www.fammed.wisc.edu/integrative
UW Integrative Medicine Program
http://www.uwhealth.org/integrativemed

Canada

Alberta
University of Alberta
CARE Program for Integrative Health & Healing
www.care.ualberta.ca/ 



University of Calgary
Canadian Institute of Natural & Integrative Medicine
www.cinim.org

Ontario
McMaster University
Family Practice Centre of Integrative Health and Healing
http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/medicine/

University of Toronto
The Office of Integrated Medical Education
http://oime.utoronto.ca/About.htm
Centre for Complementary and Integrative Medicine


Mexico

Jalisco 
Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara
http://www.uag.edu/medicine/

*Affiliate Institution
23

Professional Organizations

  • Academy of Comprehensive Esthetics (ACE)
  • Advanced Medical Education & Services Physician Association (AMESPA)
  • American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M)
  • American Academy of Biological Dentistry (AABD)
  • American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM)
  • American Academy of Medical Acupuncture
  • American Academy of Neural Therapy (AANT)
  • American Academy of Nutritional Consultants
  • American Academy of Osteopathy (AAO)
  • American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy (AAOA)
  • American Academy of Quantum Medicine (AAQM
  • American Alternative Medical Association (AAMA)
  • American Animal Adjuting Association (AAAA)
  • American Association of Acupuncture and Bio-energetic Medicine (AAABEM)
  • American Association of Alternative Health Practitioners (AAAHP)
  • American Association of Drugless Practitioners (AADP)
  • American Association of Health Freedom (AAHF) (formerly the American Preventive Medicine Association)
  • American Association of Naturopathic Physicians
  • American Association of Nutritional Consultants (AANC)
  • American Association of Orthopedic Medicine (AAOM)
  • American Association of Professional Hypnotherapists (link to another site)
  • American Chiropractic Association (ACA)
  • American Council on Collaborative Medicine (A.C.C.M.)
  • American College for Advancement in Medicine (ACAM)
  • American CranioSacral Therapy Association (ACSTA)
  • American Herbalists Guild (AHG)
  • American Holistic Medical Association (AHMA)
  • American Holistic Nurses Association
  • American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association
  • American Integrative Medical Association (AIMA)
  • American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)
  • American Nutraceutical Association (ANA)
  • American Nutrition Association (ANA), formerly Nutrition for Optimal Health Association (NOHA)
  • American Nutrition Consultants Association (ANCA)
  • American Nutritional Medical Association (ANMA)
  • American Organization for Bodywork Therapies of Asia (AOBTA)
  • American Preventive Medicine Association (APMA)
  • American Quack Association
  • American Society of Alternative Therapists
  • American Veterinary Chiropractic Associatio
  • Americans for Medical Advancement
  • Association for Integrative Health Care Practitioners (AIHCP)
  • Association for Meridian & Energy Therapies
  • Associated Bodywork and Massage Professionals (ABMP)
  • Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology (ACEP)
  • Association for Integrated Medicine (AIM)
  • Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) (link to another site)
  • Association of Natural Medicine Pharmacists (ANMP)
  • Association of Systematic Kinesiology (ASK)
  • Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine
  • Australasian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (ASOMAT)
  • Bio-Nett pH Association International
  • British Association of Nutritional Therapists (BANT)
  • British Society for Allergy, Environmental and Nutritional Medicine (BSAENM)
  • British Society for Integrated Medicine (BSIM)
  • Canadian-International Heilkunst Association (CIHA)
  • Chiropractic Awareness Council (CAC)
  • College of Optometrists in Vision Development
  • College of Syntonic Optometry
  • Commission on Religious Counseling and Healing
  • Council for Healing
  • Council on Natural Nutrition
  • Cranial Academy
  • Dietitians in Integrative and Functional Medicine (A dietetic practice group of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)
  • Energy Medicine Association
  • Environmental Dental Association
  • Federation of Straight Chiropractors and Organizations (FSCO)
  • Healing Touch International
  • Holistic Dental Association
  • Integrative Health Care Centers of America
  • International Academy of Anabiology
  • International Academy of Alternative & Anti-Aging Medicine
  • International Academy of Bioenergetic Practitioners
  • International Academy of Biological Dentistry and Medicine (AABDM)
  • International Academy of Bionetic Practitioners
  • International Academy of Holistic Health & Medicine
  • International Academy of Lymphology
  • International Academy of Metabology
  • International Academy of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine (merged in 1997 into IAACN)
  • International Academy of Oral Medicine & Toxicology (IAOMT)
  • International Academy of Quantum Medicine (IAQM)
  • International Alliance of Healthcare Educators (IAHE)
  • International Association for Oxygen Therapy
  • International and American Associations of Clinical Nutritionists (IAACN)
  • International Association for Regression Research & Therapies (IARRT)
  • International Association of Healthcare Practitioners (IAHCP)
  • International Association of Holistic Health Practitioners
  • International Association of Therapeutic Specialists (I.A.T.S.)
  • International Chiropractors Association (ICA)
  • International College of Advanced Longevity Medicine (ICALM)
  • International College of Applied Kinesiology (ICAK)
  • International College of Integrated Medicine (ICIM), formerly Great Lakes College of Clinical Medicine. International Hormone Society
  • International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)
  • International Medical & Dental Hypnotherapy Association (link to another site)
  • International Medical Council on Vaccination
  • International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS)
  • International Organization of Nutrition Consultants
  • International Society for Fluoride Research
  • International Society for Orthomolecular Medicine
  • International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine (ISSSEEM)
  • Medical Academy of Pediatric Special Needs (MAPS)
  • Multi-Discipline Alliance
  • National Academy of Research Biochemists
  • National Association of Certified Health Professionals
  • National Association of Certified Natural Health Professionals
  • National Association of Nutrition Professionals (NANP)
  • National Guild of Hypnotists (link to another site)
  • Natural Health Practitioners Association
  • Nutrition Circle
  • Nutrition in Complementary Care (A dietetic practice group of the American Dietetic Association)
  • Nutritional Consultants Organization of Canada
  • Nuritional Magnesium Association
  • Nutritional Therapy Association, Inc.®
  • Nutritional Therapy Council (NTC)
  • OBI Foundation for Bioesthetic Dentistry
  • Oncology Association of Naturopathic Physicians
  • Optometric Extension Program (O.E.P.)
  • Pastoral Medical Association
  • Physicians Association for Anthroposophic Medicine
  • Physicians Association for Eradicating Chronic Disease
  • The Radonic Association
  • Rheumatoid Disease Foundation (RDF)
  • Society for Homotoxicology & Anti-Homotoxic Therapy – GB
  • Society for Orthomolecular Health Medicine (OHM Society, formerly Orthomolecular Medical Society
  • Society for Practitioners of Biological Medicine
  • Society of Integrative Medicine
  • Society for Integrative Oncology
  • Society of Certified Nutritionists (SCN)
  • World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA)

Student Organizations

  • American Medical Student Association (AMSA)
  • Naturopathic Medical Student Organization (NMSA)

Dubious Certifying Boards

Voluntary Organizations

  • A Perfect Healing
  • Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives
  • Alliance for Bio-Integrity
  • Alliance for Natural Health
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Fund (Project Cure Foundation)
  • Amber’s Alliance Foundation
  • American Consumer Fitness Association
  • American Council on Collaborative Medicine (ACCM)
  • American Medical Denturity Association
  • American Natural Hygiene Association (ANHA)
  • American Polarity Association
  • American Schizophrenia Association
  • Americans Against Mercury
  • American Iatrogenic Association
  • Antidairy Coalition
  • Arlin J. Brown Information Center
  • Arthritis Trust of America
  • AutismOne
  • Association for Comprehensive NeuroTherapy (ACN)
  • Autism Society
  • Autism Treatment Trust
  • Australian Vaccination Network (formerly Vaccination Awareness Network)
  • BioDemocracy Alliance
  • BioPsciences Institute
  • The Bravewell Collaborative
  • Breast Iodine Thyroid Effectiveness Society (BITES)
  • Campaign for Truth in Medicine
  • Canadian Hypnosis Association
  • Cancer Control Society
  • Cancer Information Center
  • Cancer Curing Society
  • Cancer Prevention Coalition
  • Candida and Dysbiosis Information Foundation (CDIF)
  • Center for Medical Consumers
  • Center for Advancement in Cancer Education
  • Center for Alternative Cancer Research (Project Cure Foundation)
  • Center for Empirical Medicine
  • Center for Nutritional Research
  • CFIDS Association of America
  • Chemical Injury Information Network
  • Citizens for Health
  • Citizens for Mercury Relief
  • Citizens Organization for Patient Safety (COPS)
  • Coalition on Abortion/Breast Cancer
  • Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute (CERI)
  • College of Medicine (United Kingdom)
  • Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine (CFCM)
  • Coalition of Americans against Mercury
  • CoMeD (Coalition for Mercury-free Drugs)
  • Conservatives for Patients’ Rights
  • Consumer Health Organization of Canada
  • Consumers for Dental Choice
  • Defeat Autism Now! (DAN!)
  • Dinshah Health Society
  • EarthSave International/EarthSave Foundation
  • Environmental Working Group (EWG)
  • Esperanza Research Foundation
  • Feingold Association of the United States (FAUS)
  • Fetzer Institute
  • Florida Institute of Neuro-Dynamics (FIND)
  • Fluoride Action Network
  • Flower Essence Society
  • Food and Water
  • Foundation for Alternative Cancer Therapy, Ltd.
  • Foundation for Autism Information and Research (FAIR)
  • Foundation for Blood Irradiation
  • Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER)
  • Foundation for Advanced Craniofacial Esthetic Studies (F.A.C.E.S.)
  • Foundation for the Advancement of Innovation in Medicine (FAIM)
  • Foundation for Integrated Medicine
  • Foundation for Toxic Free Dentistry
  • Generation Rescue
  • Gentle Wind Project (link to another site)
  • Gordon Research Institute
  • Health Action Network Society (in Canada)
  • Health Education Alliance for Life and Longevity (H.E.A.L.L.)
  • Health Liberty
  • Health Sciences Institute (HSI)
  • Herb Research Foundation
  • Holistic Moms Network
  • Human Ecology Action League
  • Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research
  • Hypoglycemia Association
  • Immunisation Awareness Society (IAS)
  • Institute for Chronic Illnesses
  • Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM)
  • Institute of Technical Energy Medicine (ITEM)
  • Institute for Vibrant Living
  • Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS)
  • Integrative Medicine Alliance (IMA)
  • International Academy of Biological Medicine.
  • International Advocates for Health Freedom (IAHF)
  • International Association of Cancer Victors and Friends (IACVF)
  • International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology (ICSPP)
  • International Coalition for Drug Awareness (ICFDA)
  • International Council for Health Freedom (ICHF)
  • International Cranial-TMJ Academy
  • International Health Foundation
  • International Institute of Advanced Longevity Medicine (InCALM)
  • International Medical Veritas Association (IMVA)
  • International Oxidative Medicine Association
  • International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine (ISSSEEM)
  • Justice Awarenes and Basic Support (JABS)
  • Kids Against Pollution
  • Leading Edge International Research Group
  • Life Extension Foundation (in Florida)
  • Lyme Disease Association (Jackson, N.J.)
  • Medical Veritas Association
  • MindFreedom International
  • Moms Against Mercury
  • Mothers for Natural Law
  • National Association for Alternative Medicine (NAAM)
  • National Association for Honesty in Medicine (NAFHIM
  • National Council for Improved Health (NCIH)
  • National Diabetes Fund (a component of Project Cure Foundation)
  • National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA)
  • National Health Association (formerly called the American Natural Hygiene Society)
  • National Health Federation (NHF)
  • National Health Freedom Coalition
  • National Institute for Healthcare Research (NIHR)
  • National Institute for Science, Law, and Public Policy (NSLAPP)
  • National Pure Water Association (NPWA)
  • National Vaccine Information Center
  • National Wellness Coalition
  • New Hope Foundation
  • New York Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NYCAP)
  • Nutrition Institute of America (New York City)
  • Organic Consumers Organization
  • Othomolecular Oncology
  • Patients for Alternative Medicine (PFAM)
  • People Against Cancer
  • People for Reason in Science and Medicine
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) (link to another site)
  • People’s Dental Association
  • People’s Medical Society
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)
  • Preventive and Environmental Health Alliance
  • Preventive Dental Health Association (PDHA)
  • Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation
  • Prostate Cancer Fund (component of Project Cure Foundation)
  • Protect Our Water Alliance (POWA)
  • Roger Wyburn-Mason & Jack Blount Foundation for the Eradication of Rheumatoid Disease
  • Royal Cells Institute
  • SafeMinds
  • Society for DNA Free Food
  • StopSIDS.org
  • Strategic Autism Initiative
  • Swedish Association for the Electrosensitive
  • Talk abour Curing Autism (TACA)
  • Tetrahedron Inc.
  • Thyroid Patient Advocacy-UK
  • Toxic Element Research Foundation
  • Traumatic Brain Syndrome Research Foundation
  • Unlocking Autism
  • Vaccine Autoimmunity Project for Research and Education (VAP)
  • Vaccine Liberation
  • Vaccine Risk Awareness Network
  • Vital Interventions Accessible
  • Weston A. Price Foundation
  • World Health Foundation (New York City)
  • World Natural Health Organization
  • World Research Foundation
  • Zero Balancing Association

Government Agencies

Schools, Accredited But Not Recommended

  • American Academy of Nutrition (now called Huntington College of Health Sciences)
  • American Health Science University
  • American Pacific University (accredited in 2009)
  • Australasian College of Health Sciences
  • Bastyr University
  • Huntington College of Health Sciences (HCHS)
  • Life University
  • National Institute of Nutrition Education (NINE)
  • The Union Institute

Schools Not Accredited by Recognized Accrediting Agency

Non-Recognized Accrediting/Credentialing/LicensingAgencies

  • Accreditation Commission for Homeopathic Education in North America
  • Accrediting Commission for Specialized Colleges
  • Accrediting Commission International
  • Accrediting Commission International for Schools, Colleges and Theological Seminaries
  • Alternative Institution Accrediting Association
  • American Association of Accredited Colleges and Universities
  • American Association of Drugless Practitioners Commission on Accreditation
  • American Association of Non-Traditional Private Postsecondary Education
  • American Council of Private Colleges and Universities
  • American Education Association for hte Accreditation of Schools, Colleges & Universities
  • American Naturopathic Medical Certification and Accreditation Board (ANMCAB)
  • American Psycotherapy (sic) Association
  • Arizona Commission of Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education
  • Association for Distance Learning (ADLP)
  • Association for Online Academic Excellence
  • Association of Career Training Schools
  • Asssociation for Comprehensive Energy Psychology (ACEP)
  • Commission for the Accreditation of European Non-Traditional Universities
  • Commission on Medical Denturitry Accreditation (COMDA)
  • Commission on Religious Counseling and Healing
  • Council for International Education Accreditation (CIEA)
  • Council for the Accreditation of Correspondence Schools
  • Council on Medical Denturitry Education (COMDE)
  • Council on Postsecondary Alternative Accreditation
  • Council on Postsecondary Christian Education
  • Distance Graduation Accrediting Association
  • Education Commission for Integrative Health (ECIH)
  • Examining Board of Natural Medicine Practitioners
  • Holistic Nutrition Credentialing Board
  • Hygienic Doctors Association (H.D.A.)
  • International Academy of Behavioral Medicine, Counseling and Psychotherapy
  • International Accreditation Association
  • International Accrediting Association
  • International Accrediting Commission for Schools, Colleges and Theological Seminaries
  • International Association of Non-Traditional Schools
  • International College of Holistic Medicine (IHCM)
  • International Commission for the Accreditation of Colleges and Universities
  • International Council for Open and Distance Education
  • Mid States Accrediting Agency
  • Middle States Accrediting Board
  • National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE)
  • National Accreditation Association
  • National Association for Private Nontraditional Schools and Colleges
  • National Association for Private Post-Secondary Education
  • National Association of Alternative Schools and Colleges
  • National Association of Open Campus Colleges
  • National College of Holistic Medicine (NCHM)
  • National Council of Schools and Colleges
  • Non-Traditional Course Accreditation Body
  • Northwest Regional Accrediting Agency
  • Pacific Association of Schools and Colleges
  • Southern Association of Accredited Colleges and Universities
  • West European Accrediting Agency
  • Western Accrediting Agency
  • Western Association of Private Alternative Schools
  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges (note: This name is also used by a recognized accrediting agency.)
  • Western Council on Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education
  • World Association of Universities and Colleges
  • Worldwide Accrediting Commission

Schools, Outside the United States

  • Alive Academy of Nutrition (canada)
  • Anglo-American Institute of Drugless Therapy (British diploma mill)
  • Ashcroft University
  • Bircham International University
  • British College of Osteopathic Medicine
  • British West Indies Medical College (nonexistent diploma mill)
  • Calamus International University
  • Canadian Biologics School of Medical Sciences
  • Canadian School of Natural Nutrition
  • Edison Institute of Nutrition (Canada)
  • Examining Board of Natural Medicine Practitioners—North America (EBNMP North America)
  • European Open University (EOU)
  • Galien University Tutorial College (formerly Galien College of Natural Healing)
  • Greenwich University (Norfolk Island, Australia)
  • Hahnemann College for Heilkunst (Canada)
  • Healthpro College of Natural Medicine’
  • Institute of Integrated Medicine (London, Ontario)
  • International College of Spinology (Australia)
  • International Medical University for Natural Education (IMUNE)
  • Natural Health Institutes (Canada)
  • New Earth College
  • Open International University of Natural Medicine
  • Open University for Alternative Medicines (India)
  • Orca Institute (Canada)
  • Plaskett Nutritional Medicine College (United Kingdom)
  • St. Theresa’s Medical University (St. Kitts)
  • University of Health Sciences – Antigua (UHSA)

Questionable “Research” Entities

Other Academies, Associations, Centers, Councils,
Foundations, Institutes, and Information Services

  • Abha Light Foundation
  • Academy of Bio-Energetic & Integrative Medicine
  • Advanced Integrative Medical Institute
  • AIDS Free Foundation
  • Alphalearning Institute
  • Alternative Medicine Foundation
  • American Academy of Biologically Identical Hormone Therapy
  • American Academy of Integrative Medicine
  • American Academy of Neural Therapy
  • American Biographical Institute
  • American Health Institute (Los Angeles)
  • American Institute of Reboundology
  • Ändlös Institute of Preventative Medicine
  • Artery Health Institute
  • Bastis Foundation
  • Better Life Institute
  • Biomedical Health Foundation
  • BioSET Institute
  • Biosphere International Foundation
  • BioVeda Wellness Institute
  • Brain Repair Institute of Canada
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Institute
  • California Institute for Human Science
  • Cancer Cure Foundation
  • Cancerbusters Foundation
  • CANHELP
  • Center for Austic Spectrum Disorders (CASD) — Austin, Texas
  • Center for Biological Dentistry
  • Center for Development
  • Center for Empirical Medicine
  • Center for Food Safety
  • Center for Frontier Sciences (Temple University)
  • Center for Mankind Foundation
  • Center for Mind-Body Medicine
  • Center for Natural Health Research
  • Center For New Medicine
  • Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
  • Center for Personal Rights
  • Center for Special Immunology
  • Center for the Study of Autism
  • Centerpointe Research Institute
  • Centre for Implosion Research
  • Centre for Immuno-Energy Therapy
  • Centre for Integrative Dental Medicine
  • CHEK Institute
  • Colgan Institute
  • Commonweal
  • Conservative Medicine Institute
  • Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine
  • Continuum Center for Health & Healing
  • Constipation Resource Center
  • Copes Foundation
  • Council on Religious Counseling & Healing
  • Creating Health Institute
  • Crystal Clear Mountain Research Center
  • Diabetes Resource Center (Winter Haven, Florida)
  • Discovery Institute
  • Dr. John Lee Institute
  • Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics
  • Endocrinology Institute of Santa Barbara
  • Ephedra Education Council
  • Foundation for Blood Irradiation
  • Foundation for East West Medicine (FEWM)
  • Foundation for Health Choice
  • Foundation for Integrated Health (UK: Prince Charles)
  • Foundation for Psychic-Energetic Research
  • Freedom of Health Foundation
  • Frequency Foundtion
  • Frontier Sciences Foundation
  • Functional Foods for Health Program (University of Illinois)
  • Genesis Medical Research Institute
  • Genetics & Disabilities Diagnostic Care Center
  • Global Healing Center
  • Global Medicine Education Foundation
  • Good News Doctor Foundation
  • Hans Nieper Foundation (HNF)
  • Health & Science Research Institute
  • Health Research Institute (Naperville, Illinois)
  • Healthy Aging Medicine Institute
  • Health-e-America Foundation
  • Healthy Detox Institute
  • The Healthy Foundation (Vitamin Relief USA)
  • Henry Spink Foundation
  • Hippocrates Health Institute
  • Holistic Resource Center
  • Hopper Institute
  • Hufnagel Institute for the Advancement of Women’s Health
  • Hypoglycemia Foundation
  • Hypoglycemia Support Foundation
  • Immune Institute
  • International Institute of Holistic Healing
  • Institute for Health Realities
  • Institute for Human Individuality (IfHI)
  • Institute for Integrative Health
  • Institute for Integrative Nutrition (IIN)
  • Institute of BioEnergetic Medicine (IBEM)
  • Institute of Natural Health Technologies
  • Institute of Neurological Recovery
  • Integrated Healing Arts Institute
  • Integrative Health Institute
  • International Foundation of Health and Nutrition (INR)
  • International Sclerology Institute
  • Institute For Advanced BioStructural Correction
  • Institute for Blended Medicine (Rodale Press)
  • Institute for Chronic Diseases
  • Institute for Esogetic Colorpuncture
  • Institute for Functional Medicine
  • Institute for Health Realities
  • Institute for Human Energy and Biodynamic Analysis
  • Institute for Integrative Medicine
  • Institute for Nutritional Dentistry (formerly Institute for Natural Dentistry)
  • Institute for Optimum Nutrition (ION)
  • Institute for Regulative Medicine
  • Istitute for the Advancement of Medical Thermology( iAMT)
  • Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge (ISHK)
  • Institute of Advanced Medicine (Lauderhill, Florida)
  • Institute of Applied Biology (New York City)
  • Institute of Applied Psychophysics
  • Institute of Bio-Terrain Sciences
  • Institute of HeartMath
  • Institute of Integrative Health (link to FDA warning letter)
  • Institute of Natural Health Techologies
  • Institute of Nutritional Science
  • Institute of Optimum Nutrition
  • Institute of Practical Biochemistry
  • Institute of Quantum and Molecular Medicine
  • Institute of Science in Society (ISIS)
  • Institute of Technical Energy Medicine, Inc. (ITEM)
  • International Academy of Anabiology
  • Intenational Academy of Somatidian Orthobiology
  • International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology (ICSPP)
  • International Child Development Resource Center (ICDRC)
  • International Council for Health Freedom (ICHF)
  • International Foundation of Bio-Magnetics
  • Issels Foundation
  • Issels Medical Center
  • Jefferson – Myrna Brind Center of integrative Medicine
  • Kadmon Academy of Human Potential
  • Kathy Keeton Foundation
  • King Institute (Carrollton, Texas)
  • Lasik Vision Institute
  • Livingston Foundation Medical Center
  • Longevity Institute
  • Longevity Institute International
  • Maxillofacial Center for Education and Research
  • MCS Referral & Resources
  • Medical Awareness Institute
  • Melisa Medica Foundation
  • Metabolic Typing Education Center (MTEC)
  • Mind/Body Medical Institute
  • National Association for Objectivity in Science (NAOS)
  • National Institute for Behavioral Education (Australia)
  • National Institute for Medical Options
  • Natural Solutions Foundation
  • Neem Foundation
  • Neuro Immuno Therapeutics Research Foundation
  • New England Heart & Longevity Center
  • North American Academy of Magnetic Therapy
  • North Carolina Institute of Technology
  • Northeastern Institute for Advanced Natural Healing
  • Nutriceutical Sciences Institute (NSI)
  • Nutritional Cancer Therapy Trust
  • Nutritional Research and Educational Foundation (NREF), Inc. (New York City)
  • Obesity Research Institute
  • OBI Foundation for Bioesthetic Dentistry
  • Option Institute
  • Omega Institute (Rhinebeck, New York)
  • Orange County Immune Intitute
  • Osteopathic Center for Children (OCC)
  • Pain Research Institute (Provo, Utah)
  • Palm Springs Life Extenstion Institute (PSLEI)
  • Perfect Health Institute
  • Pfeiffer Treatment Center
  • Physicians Center for Family Resources
  • Planetree Health Resource Center
  • PolarWearZ Wellness Institute
  • Policy Institute for Integrative Medicine
  • Polycarp Research Institute
  • Post Institute for Family Centered Therapy
  • Prince of Wales Foundation for Integrated Health
  • Progress in Medicine Foundation
  • Radix Institute
  • Remission Foundation
  • Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Columbia University)
  • Robert Fishman Institute
  • SANA Institute
  • Sanoviv Health and Healing Center
  • Schachter Center for Complementary Medicine
  • Scoliosis Care Foundation
  • Sound Entrainment Therapies Institute (SETI)
  • Sound Health Research Institute (SHRI)
  • Suffield College & University
  • Supreme Science Qigong Center
  • Syracuse Cancer Research Institute
  • Tachyon Institute
  • Talisman Wellness Institute
  • Temple Health Maintenance Institute
  • Texas Institute of Functional Medicines (TIFM)
  • Toxic Exposure Study Trust (TEST) Foundation
  • Thinktwice Global Vaccine Institute
  • Triunified Health Enhancement Foundation
  • University Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at Stoney Brook
  • Upledger Institute
  • Vitamin C Foundation
  • Vitamin D Council
  • Waubra Foundation
  • Wellhouse Center
  • Wilson’s Syndrome Foundation
  • Women’s Health Institute of Texas
  • World Children’s Wellness Foundation
  • World Institute for Self-Healing

Trade Associations

  • Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN)
  • National Nutritional Foods Association (NNFA)

 التالي ….. في المملكة